Northern Galápagos corals reveal twentieth century warming in the eastern tropical Pacific
Models and observations disagree regarding sea surface temperature (SST) trends in the eastern tropical Pacific (ETP). We present a new Sr/Ca-SST record that spans 1940-2010 from two Wolf Island corals (northern Galápagos). Trend analysis of the Wolf record shows significant warming on multiple timescales, which is also present in several other records and gridded instrumental products. Together, these datasets suggest that most of the ETP has warmed over the 20thcentury. In contrast, recent decades have been characterized by warming during boreal spring and summer (especially north of the equator), and subtropical cooling during boreal fall and winter (especially south of the equator). These SST trends are consistent with the effects of radiative forcing, mitigated by cooling due to wind forcing during boreal winter, as well as intensified upwelling and a strengthened Equatorial Undercurrent.