Palynological records of Neogene climate and vegetation from interior western North American sites: an historical overview.

Davis, O.K.*

* Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA


www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/southwest/longrecords/
Last Updated July, 2004.
prev next prev









prev next









The analysis of long sedimentary records of Quaternary and older sediments began in North America in 1956, with the publication of Kathryn Clisby's and Paul Sears' (1956) analysis of a series of cores taken in the San Agustin playa of western New Mexico, U.S.A.
Paul B. Sears Katherine Clisby
prev next








Markgraf SAP map
prev next










Clisby's palynological analyses were done soon after the marine isotopic studies of Cesare Emiliani (1955) were published.
260 m (600 m)
200 samples (1300)
15 types (?)

Clisby believed the San Agustine Record reached the Bruhnes/ Matuyama boundary at 804 ft (unpublished). She compared the record to Emiliani's (1961) curves for the Calabrian type section, in her 1962 presentation at the First IPC (Clisby, 1962).
prev next











prev next










Eardley's (1960) "Salt Air" (Great Salt Lake) core was correlated with Milankovitch Cyclicity and Emeliani's Marine 18O record
prev next

















Clisby's work was followed by Jane Gray's and Paul Martin's analysis of Safford Basin, Arizona (Martin & Gray, 1962), Lake Cochise, Arizona (Martin, 1963) and the Great Salt Lake, Utah (Martin & Mehringer, 1965; Davis, 2002).
prev next











These early studies, taken from dry lake beds, were plagued by sedimentation gaps and poor dating, but they demonstrated the potential for very long, detailed records in western North American tectonic basins.
prev next










It was not until Thomas Van der Hammen's (1974) and Genevieve Woillard's (1979, Woillard and Mook, 1982) detailed analyses demonstrated a correlation between terrestrial and marine records that North American palynologists once again focused on long records.
prev next











David Adam initiated coring projects in standing water rather than on dry lake beds: Walker Lake, Arizona (Berry et al., 1983) Clear Lake, California (Adam and West,1983) and Tulare Lake California (Adam et al., 1989).
prev next











These investigations demonstrated the potential for millions of years of uninterrupted palynological record.
prev next










Amoco Barge GSL More recent investigations have demonstrated ever more detailed and ancient records of vegetation and climatic change (Bader, 2000; Dean et al., 2002; Woolfenden, 2003).

prev next










Woolfenden, 2003
(Davis & Moutoux, 1998)
prev next










REFERENCES

    ADAM, D.P. et al., 1989. Tulelake, California: The last 3 million years. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 72: 89-103.

    ADAM, D.P. & WEST, G.J. 1983. Temperature and presipitation estimates through the last glacial cycle from Clear Lake, California, Pollen Data. Science 219: 166-170.

    BADER, N.E. 2000. Pollen analysis of Death Valley sedients deposited between 166 and 114 Ka. Palynology 24: 49-62.

    BERRY, R.W., MCCORMICK, C.W. AND ADAM, D.P. 1982. Pollen data from a 5-m upper Pleistocene lacustrine section, Walker Lake, Coconino Co., Az. USGS Open-File Report 82-383.

    CLISBY, K.H. 1962. An inperceptible Plio-Pleistocene boundary. Abstracts, Internat. Conf. Palynol., Tucson, Arizona., April 23-27, 1962 (pages not numbered). TEXT

    CLISBY, K.H. & SEARS, P.B. 1956. San Agustin Plains - Pleistocene climatic changes. Science 124: 537-539.

    CLISBY, K.H. & FOREMAN, F. 1956.Pleistocene climatic changes in New Mexico, U.S.A. Veroffentlichungen des Geobotanischen InstitutesRubel der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule, Stiftung Rubel, Zurich 34 : 22-26

    DAVIS, O.K. 2002. Late Neogene Environmental History of the Great Salt Lake. In R. Hershler, D.B. Madsen, and D.R. Currey (eds.) Great Basin Aquatic Systems History. pp. 295-307 Smithsonian Contribs. to the Earth Sciences 33.

    DAVIS, O.K. and MOUTOUX, T.E. 1998. Tertiary and Quaternary vegetation history of the Great Salt Lake, U.S.A. Journal of Paleolimnology. 19 (4): 417 427.

    DEAN, W., et al. 2002. Progress in global lake drilling holds potential for global change research. EOS 83: 85, 90-91.

    EARDLEY A.J. and GVOSDETSKY, V. 1960. Analysis of Pleistocene core from Great Salt Lake. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 71, 1323-1344.

    EMILIANI, C. 1955. Pleistocene temperatures. Journal of Geology 63:538-578.

    EMILIANI C., MAYEDA T., SELLI R. 1961. Paleotemperature analysis of the Plio-Pleistocene section at le Castella, Calabria, southern Italy. Geological Society of America Bulletin 72:679688.

    FOREMAN, F. 1956. San Augustin Plains - the sediments. Science 124 : 539.

    FOREMAN, F., K.H., CLISBY, K.H. & SEARS, P.B. , 1959.Plio-Pleistocene sediments and climates of the San Augustin Plains, New Mexico. New Mexico Geological Society, 10th Field Conference Guidebook, pp.117- 120.

    HEUSSER, L.E. 1998. Direct correlation of millennial-scale changes in western North American vegetation and climate with changes in the California Current System over the past ~60 kyr. Paleoceanography 13: 252262.

    HEUSSER, L.E. LYLE, M. and MIX, A. 2000. Vegetation and Climate of the Northwest Coast of North America During the Last 500 K.Y.: High-Resolution Pollen Evidence From the Northern California Margin. p. 217-226 IN: Lyle, M., Koizumi, I., Richter, C., and Moore, T.C., Jr. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, Vol. 167

    MARKGRAF, V., BRADBURY, J.P., FORESTER, R.M., MCCOY, W., SINGH, G. AND STERNBERG, R.S., 1984. San Agustin Plains, New Mexico: Age and paleoenvironmental potential reassessed. Quaternary Res., 22: 335-343.

    MARTIN, P.S. 1963. The last 10,000 years. University of Arizona Press. Tucson, Az.

    MARTIN, P.S. & GRAY, J. 1962. Pollen analysis and the Cenozoic. Science 137: 103-111.

    MARTIN, P.S. & MEHRINGER, P.J. Jr. 1965. Pleistocene pollen analysis and biogeography of the Southwest. In: H.E. Wright & D.G. Frey, Quaternary of the United States. pp. 433-451. Princeton Univ. Press, Princton, NJ.

    VAN DER HAMMEN, T. 1974. The Pleistocene changes of vegetation and climate in tropical South America. J. Biogeography 1:3-26.

    WOILLARD, G.M. 1979. Abrupt end of the last interglacial in north-east France. Nature 281: 558-562

    WOILLARD, G.M. & MOOK, W.G. 1982. Carbon-14 dates at Grande Pile: correlation of land and sea chronologies. Science 215:159-161.

    WOOLFENDEN, W.B. 2003. A 180,000 year pollen record from Owens Lake, CA: Terrestrial vegetation change on orbital scales. Quaternary Research 59: 430-444.
prev