Chaco Canyon NP,
New Mexico

John Logan Diagram
The Cliff House sandstone overlies the coal-bearing Menefee Formation of the Mesa Verde Group, San Juan Basin.

Archeological images links
Southwestern Arroyos
UTEP Pleistocene bibliography

Lexam Corporation. 1995.
New Cretaceous Basin Discovered in the Rockies

Preliminary counts - abundant types (percentages)
Compositae (other)313

  • Anderson, R.Y. 1960. Cretaceous-Tertiary palynology, eastern side of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico Memoir 6, 59 pp., 3 tables, 1 fig., 11 plates, 1 index.
  • Betancourt, J. L. and Van Devender, T. R. 1981. Holocene vegetation in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Science 214: 656-658.
  • Betancourt, J. L., Dean, J. S. and Hull, H. M. 1986. Prehistoric long-distance transport of construction beams, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. American Antiquity 51: 370-375.
  • Betancourt, J. L., Van Devender, T. R. and Martin, P. S. 1983. Fossil packrat middens from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: Cultural and ecological significance. Pp. 207-217 In: Wells, S. G., Love, D. W. and Gardner., T. W., editors. Chaco Canyon country: A field guide to the geomorphology, quaternary geology, paleoecology, and environmental geology of northwestern New Mexico. American Geomorphological Field Group.
  • Clary, Karen Husum. 1983. Prehistoric Coprolite Remains from Chaco Canyon, New Mexico: Inferences for Anasazi Diet and Subsistence. Master's thesis, University of New Mexico.
  • Cross T.A. and Navarre, J.C. Recognition and High-Resolution Correlation of Continental Stratigraphic Cycles, Mesa Verde Group, San Juan Basin, Colorado source
  • Deborah, D. 1979. Palynostratigraphy and Paleoecology of the La Ventana Formation Cretaceous (Maestrichtian) San Juan Basin New Mexico. MS Thesis, Penn State University.
  • English, N.B., Betancourt, J.L., Dean, J.S. and Quade, J. 2001. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 (21): 1189111896. Viewed online November 2003 at Betancourt PR
  • Fall, P.L. Kelso, G., Markgraf, V. 1981. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction at Canyon del Muerto, Arizona, based on principal-component analysis. Journal Archaeological Science 8: 297-307.
  • Fall, P.L. 1987. Pollen taphonomy in a canyon stream. Quaternary Research 28: 393-406
  • Fleming, R.F., 1990, Palynology of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval and Paleocene part of the Raton Formation, Colorado and New Mexico: Boulder, University of Colorado, Ph.D. dissertation, 283 p.
  • Floyd-Hanna, L., and D. Hanna. 1995. Vegetation studies at Chaco Culture National Historical Park. Unpubl. report to the National Park Service, Environmental Studies Program, Prescott College, Prescott, Arizona.
  • Force, E. R., R. Gwinn Vivian, T. Windes, and J. Dean. 2002. The relationof "Bonito" Paleo-channels and base-level variations to Anasazi occupation in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Arizona State Museum Archaeological Series, # 194.
  • Gross, L.T. 1961. Stratigraphic Analysis of the Mesa Verde Group, Uinta Basin, Utah., Geology
  • Vivian, R.G. The Chacoan Prehistory of the San Juan Basin. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press, 1990
  • Hall, S.A. 1977. Late Quaternary sedimentation and paleoecologic history of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Geologic Society of America Bulletin, Vol. 88, November, p. 1593-1618.
  • Hall, S.A. 1983. Holocene stratigraphy and paleoecology of Chaco Canyon. Pages 219-226 in: S.G. Wells, D.W. Love, and T.W. Gardner, eds. Chaco Canyon Country, 1983 Conference Field Trip Guidebook, Amer. Geomorphological Field Group.
  • Hall, S.A. 1988. Prehistoric vegetation and environment at Chaco Canyon. American Antiquity, 52(3), p 582-592.
  • Hall, S.A. 1989.Pollen analysis and paleoecology of alluvium. Quaternary Research 31: 435-438.
  • Hall, S.A. 1997. Pollen analysis and woodrat middens: re-evaluation of Quaternary vegetational history in the American Southwest. Southwestern Geographer, Vol. 1, p 25-43.
  • Hocking, George M. 1956. Some Plant Materials Used Medicinally and Otherwise by the Navaho Indians in the Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Palacio 56:146-165.
  • Hoffman, G.K., Campbell, F.W. and Beaumont E.C. with contributions by Kottlowski, F.E. Cohen, A.D. Kuellmer F.J., Bellis, D., Cook, K.H. and Verploegh J. N.D. Quality assessment of strippable coals in northwestern New Mexico: The Fruitland, Menefee and Crevasse Canyon Formation coals in the San Juan Basin, and Moreno Hill Formation coals in the Salt Lake field. New Mexico Bureau Geology Bull 141.
  • Hoffman, G.K., and Jones, G. E. 2001. Coal Availability Studies, Fruitland and Menefee Formations, San Juan Basin, New Mexico: in Transactions, Society of Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, vol. 310. Abstract
  • Hoffman G.K., and Jones, G. E., 2001, Coal Availability Study- Upper Menefee Formation in the Chacra Mesa, La Ventan fields, Northwest New Mexico: New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Open-file report 457, 16 p., 1 appendix.
  • Hoffman, G.K. and Jones, G.E., 2001 Coal Availability Study-Fruitland Formation in the Fruitland and Navajo Fields, Northwest New Mexico: New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources Open-file report 464, 33 p., 1 appendix.
  • Huffman, A.C., Jr. N.D. San Juan Basin Province. Viewed online at November, 2003.
  • Jameossanaie, A. 1984. Depositional environments of the Menefee Coal (Upper Cretaceous) in the South Hospah area, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Palynology 8: 243 [abstract]
  • Jameossanaie, A. 1987. Palynology and age of South Hospah coal-bearing deposits, McKinley County, New Mexico. Bulletin of the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources 12: 1-65.
  • Judd, N.M. 1954. The material culture of Pueblo Bonito. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 124, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Judd, N.M. 1959. Pueblo del Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, new Mexico. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 138, No. 1, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Lister, R.H., and F.C. Lister. 1981. Chaco Canyon: Archaeology and Archaeologists. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 284 pages.
  • Love, D.W. 1980. Quaternary geology of Chaco Canyon, northeastern New Mexico. Ph.D. dissertation, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, 613 p.
  • McClammer, J., Wheeler, E.A. and LaPasha, C.A. 1994. Cretaceous and Paleocene dicotyledonous woods of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. American Journal of Botany 81(6, supplement):98 [Abstract].
  • McNitt, F. 1957. Richard Wetherill: Anasazi. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 362pp.
  • Newman, K.R. 1965. Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene guide palynomorphs from northwestern Colorado. University of Colorado Studies, Series in Earth Sciences, 21, 21p.
  • Nichols, D.J. 1994. A revised palynostratigraphic zonation of the nonmarine Upper Cretaceous, Rocky Mountain region, United States. In: Mesozoic systems of the Rocky Mountain region, U.S.A, (Ed. by M.V. Caputo, J.A. Peterson and K.J. Franczyk,), pp.
  • Nichols, D.J. and Sweet, A.R. 1993. Biostratigraphy of the Upper Cretaceous non-marine palynofloras in a north-south transect of the Western Interior basin. In: Evolution of the Western Interior Basin, (Ed. by W.G.E. Caldwell and E.G. Kauffman), Geological Association of Canada Special Paper 39, pp. 539-584.
  • Potter, L.D., and N.E. Kelley. 1980. Aerial photointerpretation of vegetation of Chaco Canyon National Monument. Pages 87-104 in: T.R. Lyons and F.J. Mathien, eds. Cultural Resources Remote Sensing. Cultural Resources Management Division, National Park Service, Washington, D.C.
  • Silver, C. 1957. Cretaceous stratigraphy of the San Juan basin, in Guidebook the south and west sides of the San Juan basin: Four Corners Geological Society, 2nd Field Conference Guidebook, p. 104-118.
  • Silver, C. 1957. Relation of coastal and submarine topography to Cretaceous stratigraphy, in Geology of southwestern San Juan basin: Four Corners Geological Society, 2nd Field Conference Guidebook, p. 128-137.
  • Smith, L. N. 1992. Stratigraphy, sediment dispersal, and paleogeography of the San Jose Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook. 43: 297309.
  • Smith, L. N. 1992. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene Stratigraphy and tectonics along the Nacimiento uplift, southeastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico: New Mexico Geological Society Guidebook. 43: 251256.
  • Smith, L. N. and Lucas, S. G. 1991. Stratigraphy, sedimentology, and paleontology of the San Jose Formation in the central San Juan Basin, New Mexico. New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources Bulletin 126. 44 pp.
  • Spielmann, J.A., Lucas, S.G., Braman, D.R. 2003. Age and correlation of the Upper Cretaceous Tohatchi Formation, Western New Mexico.
    Abstracts Rocky Mountain - 55th Annual Meeting (May 7-9, 2003)
    Tohatchi Formation palynology (Bramann)
    Aquilapollenites senonicus Interval Zone of early Campanian age: Aquilapollenites attenuatus, A. trialatus, A. turbidus, Pulcheripollenites krempii and Tricolpites reticulatus Accuratipollis lactiflumis, Brevimonosulcites corrugatus, Callialasporites dampieri, Microfoveolatosporis pseudoreticulatus, Periretisynolporites chinookensis, and Rugubivesiculites reductus
  • Taylor, L.H. 1976. Mammalian faunas and paleomagnetic stratigraphy of the type Torrejonian, San Juan Basin, New Mexico [abstr.]; v.11, 1976 proc. suppl., Apr'76, p.88.
  • Tschudy, R.H. 1976. Palynology of the Cravasse Canyon and Menefee Formations of San Juan Basin, New Mexico, in Guidebook to coal geology northwest New Mexico, E.C. Beaumont, J.W. Shomaker, and W.J. Stone, eds.: New Mexico Bureau of Mines & Mineral Resources Circular 154, p. 48-55.
  • Tschudy, R.H. 1982. Iridium abundance measurements across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the San Juan and Raton Basins of northern New Mexico in Geological implications of impacts of large asteroids and comets on the Earth, L.T. Silver and PH. Schultz, eds.: Geological Societyof America Special Paper 190, p. 423-433 (with C.J. Orth, J.S. Gilmore, J.D. Knight, CL. Fillmore, and J.E. Fassett).
  • Wheeler, E.A., McClammer J., and LaPasha, C.A.. 1995. Similarities and differences in dicotyledonous woods of the Cretaceous and Paleocene. San Juan Basin, New Mexico, U.S.A. IAWA Journal 16: 223-254.
  • Williamson, T.E. 1996. A centrosaurine ceratopsian dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Early Campanian) Menefee Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico. J.Vert.Paleont. 16(3, Suppl.): 73A
  • Williamson, T.E. 1996. Brachychampsa sealeyi, sp. nov., (Crocodylia, Alligatoroidea) from the Upper Cretaceous (lower Campanian) Menefee Formation, northwestern New Mexico. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 16(3):421-431. Viewed online November, 2003 at
  • Zavada. M. 1976. A reevaluation of the paleobotany of the Fruitland Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico [abstr.] v.11, 1976 proc. suppl., Apr'76, p.87.