Davis, O.K. 1994. 1994. Pollen Analysis of Borderland Cienegas, Contract Number HQ/AZ-920815-1. Report submitted to Richard P. Young, The Nature Conservency, Arizona Field Office, 300 E. University Blvd., Suite 230, Tucson, Arizona 85704. 105 p.
Davis, O.K. 1995. Pre-Columbian human impact on the wetlands of the Southwestern U.S.A. AASP 28th Annual Meeting, Oct. 10-14. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Davis, O.K. 1995. The impact of climatic change on available moisture in arid lands, examples from the American Southwest. pp. 283-299 IN: "Diachronic Climatic Impacts on Water Resources." NATO ASI Series D. Reidel Publ.
Davis, O.K. 1998. Palynological evidence for vegetation cycles in a 1.5 million year pollen record from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S.A. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 138:175-185. abstract pdf Elsevier
Davis, O.K. 1999. Preliminary pollen analysis of Neogene and Quaternary sediment of the Great Salt Lake, U.S.A., Proceedings Pliocene Conference, AASP Contribution Series 34: 227-240.
Davis, O.K. 2002. Late Neogene Environmental History of the Great Salt Lake. pp. 295-307 IN: R. Hershler, D.B. Madsen, and D.R. Currey (eds.) Great Basin Aquatic Systems History. Smithsonian Contribs. to the Earth Sciences 33.
Davis, O.K. and Moutoux, T.E. 1998. Tertiary and Quaternary vegetation history of the Great Salt Lake, U.S.A. Journal of Paleolimnology. 19 (4): 417-427.
Dean, W., Rosenbaum, J., Haskell, B., Kelts, K., Schnurrenberger, D., Valero-Garces, B., Cohen, A., Davis, O., Dinter, D. and Nielson, D. 2002. Progress in global lake drilling holds potential for global change research. EOS 83: 85, 90-91.
Moutoux, T.E. Davis, O.K., Perkins, M., and Nash, W.P. (in prep). Palynological and tephra correlations among deep wells in the Modern Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S.A. G.S.A. Bulletin.
Moutoux, T. and Davis, O.K. 1995. Neogene through Pleistocene paleoclimate of the Great Salt Lake region, Northeastern Great Basin, U.S.A. Proceedings 11th PACLILM Workshop, Calif. Dept. Water Res. Ecol. Stud. Progr. Techn. Rep. 40:127-135.
The Palynology Laboratory at the University of Arizona is
currently involved in 3 large projects including the analysis of
98 pollen samples from excavations on the Calfiornia State
University at Longbeach, 300 samples from a series of 5 cores
from Ballona Lagoon, and 200 samples from freshwater and lagoon
cores from Newport Bay. Recently-complete projects are listed
Davis, O.K. 1995. Pollen analysis the Prado flood control basin, CA-RIV-653 -1098 -2798. Report Submitted to Donn R. Grenda, Statistical Research, Redlands, CA 92373. 25 p.
Davis, O.K. 1995. Pollen analysis of sites near Copper Butte and the Ray complex, AZ V:13:127 AND AZ U:16:246. Report Submitted to Mary Lou Heuett, Cultural & Environmental Systems, Tucson, Az. 12 pp.
Davis, O.K. 1995. Pollen analysis of a mid-lake core from Lake Tahoe, California: Historic vegetation change. Report Submitted to Don Erman, SNEP Team Leader and Director Centers for Water and Wildlands Resources, Univ. California, Davis. 19 pp.
Davis, O.K. 1995. Pollen analysis of the Sugarloaf Fault Project. Report submitted to Dr. Kirk Vincent, Arizona Geological Survey. 9 pp.
Davis, O.K. and Overs, J. (Editors) 1994. Archeological Palynology: An International Perspective. American Assoc. of Stratigraphic Palynologists Contrib. Ser. 29, 221 p.
Davis, O.K. 1994. The correlation of summer precipitation in the
southwestern U.S.A. with isotopic records of solar activity
during the Medieval Warm Period. Climate Change. 26:271-287.
Decreased solar activity correlates with positive cosmogenic isotope anomalies, and with cool, wet climate in temperate regions of the world. The relationship of isotope anomalies to climate may be the opposite for areas influenced by monsoonal precipitation, i.e., negative anomalies may be wet and warm. Petersen (1988) has found evidence for increased summer precipitation in the American Southwest that can be shown to be coincident with negative 14C anomalies during the Medieval Warm Period. The present study compares palynological indicators of lake level for the Southwest with Petersen's data and with the 14C isotope chronology. Percentages of aquatic pollen and algae from three sites within the Arizona Monsoon Boundary record greater lake depth or fresher water from A.D. 700 - 1350, between the Roman IV and Wolf positive isotope anomalies, thereby supporting Petersen's findings. Maximum summer moisture coincides with maximum population density of prehistoric People of the Southwest. However, water depth at a more northern site was low at this time, suggesting a climate - isotope relationship similar to that of other temperate regions. Further analysis of latitudinal patterns is hampered by inadequate 14C dating.
Davis, O.K., Dai, K., Dean, J.S., Parks, J., and Kalin, R.M. (In
press.). Radiocarbon dating of buried trees, and climatic
change in west-central Oklahoma. Radiocarbon.
The production of cosmogenic isotopes, especially as revealed in the tree-ring record of radiocarbon anomalies, provides a detailed chronology for rapid global climatic change. Solar variability modulates production of 14C and 10Be and influences global climate. Large (>10 ) -14C excursions in tree-ring records from North America, the British Isles, and Germany coincide with brief, intense cold periods in dated paleoclimatic time series. Although the climate - 14C-anomaly correspondence can be demonstrated in long (5000 yr) series (Sonett and Suess, 1984), detailed comparisons are needed to more-precisely test the relationship, particularly before the Little Ice Ages. The coincidence of cold periods and -14C anomalies first was suggested by de Vries (1958) and Eddy (1977) for the Little Ice Ages; however, the origin of the solar - climate hypothesis can be traced to the 19th century. The 14C and 10Be records allows the comparison of solar variability and climate over much longer timescales. Detailed comparisons of tree-ring analysis and radiocarbon dating by Schmidt and Gruhle (1988) demonstrate coincident cool-wet climate and -14C anomalies during the Homeric (880-600 BC) and Greek (460-260 BC) "Dendroklic" events. If the 14C-climate association is global, then Schmidt and Gruhle's (1988) results should be replicable in North America. We propose to repeat the study of Schmidt and Gruhle, using 64 well-preserved trees from Carnegie Canyon, Oklahoma (Hall and Lintz, 1984). Through detailed dendroclimatic study and high-precision radiocarbon dating of these trees, we will test the global nature of the 14C-climate "Dendroklic" phenomenon.
Davis, O.K., Jirikowic, J.L., and Kalin, R.M., 1992. The
Radiocarbon record of solar variability and Holocene
climatic change in coastal southern California. Proceedings
8th PACLILM Workshop, Calif. Dept. Water Res. Ecol. Stud.
Progr. Techn. Rep. 31:19-33
The tree-ring calibration of radiocarbon dates may provide a chronology for high-frequency global climatic change. Large (ca. 10o/oo) delta -14C excursions in tree-ring series from North America, Great Britain, and Germany, are associated with brief, intense cold periods throughout the Holocene. The coincidence of cold periods and delta -14C anomalies first was suggested by de Vries (1958) for the Little Ice Ages. Schmidt and Gruhle (1988) have combined dendrochronologic analysis and radiocarbon dating to demonstrate coincident cool-wet climate and increased 14C production during the Homeric (880-600 BC) and Greek (460-260 BC) Minima. Many western North America sites record cold-wet climate at this time. Pollen analysis and 5 radiocarbon dates for a 687 cm core provide a detailed chronology of environmental change for San Joaquin Marsh at the head of Newport Bay, Orange County, California. Sediment deposition kept pace with sea-level rise during the mid-Holocene, but after 4500 yr B.P. sea water regularly reached the coring site, and salt marsh was the local vegetation. Brief periods of dominance by fresh-water vegetation 3800, 2800, 2300 and after 560 yr B.P., correlate global cooling events and (except the 3800 yr B.P. event) with 14C production anomalies. The coincidence of climate change and 14C anomalies support a causal connection with solar variability; but regardless of the causal mechanism(s) the delta -14C curves provide a chronology for global, high-frequency climatic change comparable to that of Milankovitch cyclicity for longer time scales.
Davis, O.K. and Shafer, D.S. 1992. An early-Holocene maximum for
the Arizona monsoon recorded at Montezuma Well, central
Arizona. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology.
Pollen and macrofossil analyses of a radiocarbon-dated core, 1125 cm long, from Montezuma Well, elev. 1125 m, Yavapai County, Arizona, provide a record of summer precipitation similar to that of other monsoonal regions of the world. Precipitation was least from 4000 to 5000 yr B.P., and generally was greater than today before 8400 yr B.P. During the early-Holocene moist period, oak and grass pollen are abundant, and the best modern analogs are within the Arizona Monsoon boundary, so increased summer precipitation is indicated. Climatic parameters are estimated with the technique of best modern analogs for fossil samples. Temperature was highest ca. 3400 and 5700 yr B.P., and generally was cooler than today before 6800 yr B.P. Brief cold intervals in the Holocene match periods of global cooling and of positive 14C and 10Be anomalies.
Jirikowic, J.L., Kalin, R.M. and Davis, O.K. 1993. Tree-Ring 14C
as an indicator of climate change. Climatic Change in
Continental Isotopic Records. AGU Geophysical Monograph
Analyses of the tree-ring delta-14C data set shows intermittent high 14C anomalies. During these anomalies, the time series nature of the 14C data set changes markedly. Such non-stationarity suggests 14C variation results from a dynamic non-linear set of processes. The latest 14C anomaly occurs during the past millennium and coincides with the historic profound solar activity minima. To test the hypotheses of solar modulation of global climate and cosmogenic isotope anomalies, we sought evidence for brief climatic events coincident with major anomalies in a rapid deposition site which had not been previously reported. Using detailed pollen analysis and precise 14C dating, we have studied climatic change during the Homeric-Greek (1830-2550, 2360 - 2160 cal B.P.) And Noachan (4880-4660 cal B.P.) Anomalies at Mission Cross Bog, Elko Co., Nevada. Through "wiggle-matching" with the 14C calibration curve, we could date the precise interval in the sediment record which corresponds to the Homeric and Greek 14C production anomalies. We located the exact age of the Greek anomaly only, corresponding to a wet period in the pollen diagram. We also discovered two wet periods that do not match any cosmogenic isotope anomalies. The presence of brief climatic episodes cannot be used to date the sequence. By dating and analyzing pollen during the Homeric and Noachan anomalies, we may confirm or refute the climate-cosmogenic isotope anomaly association.
Leroux, M., Petit-Maire, N, and Davis, O.K. (In press.)
Differential insolation at north and south high latitudes
explains palaeoclimatic changes in tropical Africa for the
last 30,000 years. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology
In the last decades, the close connection between orbital insolation pseudo-periodicities and short and long-term terrestrial climatic records has verified Milankovitch's theories (Hays & Imbrie 1975; Bernard 1977; Berger 1978, 1981; Kutzbach and Otto-Bliesner, 1982, Kutzbach, 1987), especially the alternation of humid and arid phases of the world's deserts and their sensitive margins (Petit-Maire 1986, 87, 88). Cyclicities of ca. 115,000, 40,000, and 19-23,000 years have been recognized, even over long time spans (Thiedeman et al., 1988). However, the many complex variations and rapid changes in the tropical belt cannot be explained by these slow cosmic evolutions. For example, the movement of the Saharo-Sahelian margins by 10o between 19,000 and 9,000 BP and by ca. 6o between 7,000 BP and the present (Petit-Maire 1988, 1989). Furthermore, on longer time scales, climatic change lags thousands of years behind the orbitally-induced insolation changes.