- Calcareous, unicellular marine organisms,with alternating or
spirally-arranged, progressively larger cells (bottom right).
The chitinous inner linings of benthic foraminifera are common in
pollen preparations of marine or esturine sediment. These chitinous
remains vary in their size, the shape and arrangement of the cells,
and in their ornamentation. Spiral forms (coiling either direction)
are most common, but zig-zag, linear, and other forms also occur
- Journal of Foraminiferal Research
- Planktonic Foram Atlas from CLIMAP
- Geoscience & Man and Palynology Reference:
- deVernal, Bilodeau, and 'Hillaire-Marcel, 1992,
Quantitative assessment of
carbonate dissolution in marine sediments from foraminifer linings vs.
shell ratios: Davis Strait, northwest North Atlantic: Geology, v. 20, p. 527-530.
- Leroy S., 1992
- Palynological evidence of Azolla nilotica Dec. in recent
Holocene of the eastern Nile delta and palaeoenvironment. Vegetation
History and Archaeobotany 1: 43-52.
- Loeblich, A.R., Jr. and Tappan, H. 1988.
Foraminifera genera and their
classification (2 vols.) Van Nostrand Reinhold, N.Y.
- Medioli and Scott, 1983,
Testate Arcellaceans of eastern Canada: Cushman
Foundation for Formainiferal Research, special publ. 21, 63 p.
- Medioli and Scott, 1988,
Lacustrine thecameobians (mainly Arcellacea) as
potential tools for paleolimnilogical studies:
Paleo, Paleo, Paleo, v. 62 p. 361-386.
- Patterson, R.T. 1987,
Journal of Foraminieral Research, v. 17, p. 333-343.
- Stancliffe, R. P. W. 1989.
Microforaminiferal linings; their classification,
biostratigraphy and paleoecology, with special reference to specimens
from British Oxfordian sediments. Micropaleontology, 35(4): 337-352.
- Introduction to the Foraminifera U Berkeley
- Brian Huber What are Foraminifera
- Kane Scientific Company Foram Models beautiful models!
- National Museum of Natural History SEM images
- Foram References Martin R. Leipzig