Drawings by Joe Lockett
Helmut Kroll Cultivated Macrobots
USGS Ken Cole photos
Wood Sections OKD

Macrofossil (seed) manuals

Ball, C. C. 1939. An artificial key to common shrub and herb seeds of southern Michigan and vicinity. Unpublished Thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Barton, L. V. (Compiler). 1967. Bibliography of seeds. Columbia University Press, New York.

Beijerinck, W. 1947. Zadenatlas der Nederlandsche flora. E. Veenman and Zonen, Wageningen, 316 pp. (Partial English translation by E. E. Gaertner).

Berggren, G. 1969. Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. Part 2, Cyperaceae. Swedish Museum Natural History, Stockholm

Berggren, G. 1981. Atlas of seeds and small fruits of Northwest-European plant species with morphological descriptions. Part 3, Salicaceae-Cruciferae. Swedish Museum Natural History, Stockholm

Bertsch, K. 1941. Handbucher der praktischen Vorgeschichtsforschung: Fruchte und Samen. Verlag Ferdinand Enke Stuttgart, Germany, 247 pp. (Partial English translation by R. 0. Kapp).

Bomhard, M. L. 1926. Taxonomic studies of seeds of selected groups of the plants of western Pennsylvania with keys and descriptions. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh.

Chitrowo, W. 1914. Atlas von Samen und Früchten der feldundrauter aus Mittelrussland. Bull. Angew. Bot. 7(3):181-202.

Corner, E. J. H. 1976. The seeds of dicotyledons, Volumes 1 and 2. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Davis, Linda W. 1993. Weed Seeds of the Great Plains: A Handbook for Identification. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. 208 pp.

Delcourt, P.A., Davis, O.K., and Bright, R.C. 1979. Bibliography of taxonomic literature for the identification of fruits, seeds, and vegetative plant fragments. Oak Ridge National Lab. ORNL/TM-6818.

Delorit, R. J. 1970. An illustrated taxonomy manual of weed seeds. Agronomy Publications, River Falls, Wisconsin, 175 pp.

Franck, W. J., and W. H. Bruijning (Compilers). 1931. General seed bibliography. International Seed Testing Association Comm. Pub. and Registr., Parts 1&2:1-622.

Freckmann, and Brower. 1927. Atlas der samenkunde. Neumann Neudam.

Gaertner, E. E. 1953. Key to "seeds" of fleshy fruits. Transactions of the Royal Canadian Institute 30(l):33-44, 2 plates.

Gaertner, E. E. (English Translator and Arranger). 1954. Beijerinck, W., and J. Scurti, two keys for the identification of "seeds". Research Council of Ontario, Toronto.

Godwin, Sir H. 1975. The history of the British flora, a factual basis for phytogeography, second edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 541 pp.

Gunn, C. R., J. V. Dennis, and P. J. Paradine. 1976. World guide to tropical drift seeds and fruits. Quadrangle, The New York Times Book Co., New York, 240 pp.

Harlow, W. M. 1959. Fruit key and twig key to trees and shrubs. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 106 pp.

Isley, D. 1947. Investigations in seed classification by family characteristics. Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station Research Bulletin 351:1-63.-

Katz, N. Ja., S. V. Katz, and M. G. Kipiani. 1965. Atlas and keys of fruits and seeds occurring in the Quaternary deposits of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Commission for Investigations of the Quaternary Period, Nauka, Moscow, 367 pp. (Partial English translation by J. C. Ritchie).

Köber-Grohne, V. 1964. BestimmungsschlUssel fur subfossile Juncus-Samen und Gramineen-FrUchte. Probleme der Kustentorschung im Sudlichen Nordseegebiet 7, Hildersheim, August Lax, Germany.

Landers, J. L., and A. S. Johnson. 1976. Bobwhite quail food habits in the southeastern United States with a seed key to important foods. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida, Misc. Publ. 4:1-90.

Martin, A. C. 1946. The comparative internal morphology of seeds. American Midland Naturalist 36:513-660.

Martin, A. C., and W. D. Barkley. 1961. Seed identification manual. University of California Press, Berkeley, 221 pp.

Mason, H.L. 1957. A flora of the marshes of California. Univ. California Press, Berkeley.

McClure, D. S. 1957. Seed characters of selected plant families. Iowa State College, Journal of Science 31:649-682.

Montgomery, F. H. 1977. Seeds and fruits of plants of eastern Canada and northeastern United States. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, and Buffalo, New York, 232 pp.

Palmer, E. L. 1916. A seed key to some common weeds and plants. Proceedings of the Iowa Academy of Science 23:335-394.

Parker, K.F. 1972. An illustrated guide to Arizona weeds. University of Arizona Press.

Peterson, M. G. 1973. How to know the wild fruits: a guide to plants when not in flower by means of fruit and leaf (with a new table of changes in nomenclature by E. S. Harrar). Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 340 pp.

Renfrew, J. M. 1973. Palaeoethnobotany, the prehistoric food plants of the Near East and Europe. Methuen & Co. ltd., 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC 4, Great Britain, 248 pp., 48 plates.

Schopmeyer, C. S. (Coordinator). 1974. Seeds of woody plants in the United States. U.S.D.A. Agricultural Handbook No. 450:1-883.

Swarbrick, J. T. 1970. The identification of the seeds and fruits of common Scottish aquatic herbs. Botanical Society of Edinburgh, Transactions 41(I):9-25.

U.S.D.A. 1948. Woody-plant seed manual. U.S.D.A. Misc. Publ. No. 654:1-416.

U.S.D.A., 1974. Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. U.S.D.A. Agric. Handb. 450.

Wright, W. H. 1950-1955. Weed seeds. Canadian Department of Agriculture, Queen's Printer, Ottawa, Ontario. 8 sections with 36 species per section, $1.50 per section.


Core,H.A., Cote, W.A., and A.C. Day 1979 Wood Structure and Identification, 2nd edition. Syracuse University Press.

Dale, Arlene. 1968. Comparative wood anatomy of some shrubs native to the Northern Rocky Mountains. USDA Research Paper INT-45 73 p.

Detienne, P. & Jacquet, P. 1983. Atlas d'identification des bois de l'Amazonie et des Regions voisines. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical,France. 640 p.

Fahn, A., Werker, E. and P. Baas. 1986. Wood Anatomy and Identification of Trees and Shrubs from Israel and Adjacent Regions Jerusalem, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Greguss, P. 1959. Holzanatomie der Europeischen Laubhflzer und Steucher. Budapest, Akad. Kiad. 330 p.

Hastorf, C.A. & Popper, V.S. 1988. Current Paleoethnobotany : Analytical methods and cultural interpretation of archaeological plant remains. Chicago/London, The University of Chicago Press. 236 pp.

Hess, R.W. 1946. Keys to American woods. XVII. Woods with vasicentric tracheids. XVIII. Fibers with spiral thickenings. XIX. Special fibers in parenchyma-like arrangement. XX. Woods with unilaterally paratracheal parenchyma. Tropical Woods 85 : 11-19.

Hess, R.W. 1948. Keys to American woods. XX. Woods with unilaterally paratracheal parenchyma. XXI. Parenchyma in numerous concentric bands. Tropical Woods 94 : 29-52.

Hoadley, R. Bruce 1990 Identifying Wood: Accurate Results with Simple Tools. Taunton press. Newton, CT.

Ilic, J. 1991. CSIRO. Atlas of hardwoods. Springer-Verlag. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York. 525 pp. (no descriptions)

Mainieri, C. & Chimelo, J.P. 1989. Fichas de caracteristicas das madeiras brasileiras. ed. Paulo, IPT. 418 p.

Metcalfe, C.R. & Chalk, C. 1950. Anatomy of the dicotyledons. 2 volumes. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 1500 p.

Miles, Anne. 1978. Photomicrographs of wold woods. Building Research Establishment Report. Department of the Environment HMSO, London.

Minnis, P.E. (1987) .Identification of Wood from Archaeological Sites in the American Southwest. I. Keys for Gymnosperms. Journal of Archaeological Science, 14:121-131

Panshin, A. J. and C. d. Zeeuw 1970 Textbook of Wood Technology. third ed vol. 1. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Pearsall, D. 1989 Paleoethnobotany: A Handbook of Procedures. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego.

Record, S.J. 1942. Keys to American woods. I. Ring-porous woods. II. Woods with pores in ulmiform or dendritic arrangement. Tropical Woods 72: 19-35.

Record, S.J. & Hess, R.W. 1943. Timbers of the New World. New Haven, Yale University Press. 640 p.

Record, S.J. 1943a. Keys to American woods. IV. Vessels virtually all solitary. V. Vessels with spiral thickenings. Tropical Woods 73 : 23-42.

Record, S.J. 1943b. Keys to American woods. VI. Vessels with scalariform plates. VII. Vessels with very fine pitting. IX. Woods with conspicuous rays. Tropical Woods 75 : 8-26.

Record, S.J. 1944a. Keys to American woods. X. Woods with storied structure. Tropical Woods 76 : 32-47.

Record, S.J. 1944b. Keys to American woods. XI. Woods with resin or gum ducts. XII. Parenchyma reticulate. Tropical Woods 77 : 18-38.

Record, S.J. 1944c. Keys to American woods. XIII. Woods with septate fibers. Tropical Woods 78 : 35-45.

Record, S.J. 1944d. Keys to American woods. XIV. Dicotyledonous woods with xylem rays virtually all uniseriate. Tropical Woods 79 : 25-34.

Record, S.J. 1944e. Keys to American woods. XV. Fibers with conspicuous bordered pits. XVI. Woods with oil (or similar) cells. Tropical Woods 80: 10-15.

Smart, T. L. and E. S. Hoffman 1988 Environmental Interpretation of Archaeological Charcoal. In Current Paleoethnobotany: Analytical Methods and Cultural Interpretations of Archaeological Plant Remains, edited by C. A. Hastorf and V. S. Popper, pp. 167-205. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.

Schweingruber, F.H. 1978. Mikroskopische Holzanatomie. Birmensdorf, Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research. 226 p.

Schweingruber, F.H. 1990. Anatomy of European woods. Bern/Stuttgart, P. Haupt publ. 800 p.

Schweingruber, Fritz Hans Mikroskopische Holzanatomie Microscopic wood anatomy : structural variability of stems and twigs in recent and subfossil woods from Central Europe Teufen : F. Fl Cck-Wirth, 1990. Text in English, French, or German.

Schweingruber, Fritz Hans Anatomie europ ischer Hlzer : ein Atlas zur Bestimmung europ Fischer Baum-, Strauch-, und Zwergstrauchh lzer Anatomy of European woods : an atlas for the identification of European trees, shrubs, and dwarf shrubs Fritz Hans Schweingruber ; mit einem Beitrag von Pieter Baas. Bern : Verlag P. Haupt, 1990. Text in English and German.

Smart, Tristine Lee, and Ellen S. Hoffman 1988 Environmental Interpretation of Archaeological Charcoal. In _Current Paleoethnobotany_, eds. C.A. Hastorf and V.S. Popper, pp. 167-205. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Tomlinson, P.B. and Zimmermann, M.H. 1967. The "wood" of monocotyledons. Bull. International Association of Wood Anatomists. 1967 4-24.

K. Wilson and D.J.B. White. The anatomy of wood : its diversity and variability London : Stobart, 1986.

Macrofossil Investigations

Birks, H.H. 1980. Plant macrofossils in Quaternary lake sediments. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beig. 15:1-60.

Martin, A.C. and W.D. Barkley. Seed identification manual. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkley. 221 p.

Watts, W.A. and R.C. Bright. 1968. Pollen, seed, and mollusk analysis of a sediment core from Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 79:855-876.

Watts, W.A. and T.C. Winter. 1966. Plant macrofossils from Kirchner Marsh, Minnesota - a paleoecology study. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 77:1339-1360.

West, R.G. 1957. Interglacial deposits at Bobbitshole, Ipswich. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 241:229-246)