FRUIT STRUCTURES

Fruit: ripened ovary with accessory structures

Receptacle: base (end of "stalk") for flower parts
Hypantheum: attachment area for sepals & petals
e.g., apples = expanded hypanthium, also rose hips
petals: thin, colored
stamens: filament, anther

GYONECIUM
Stigma: pollen-receptive organ
Style: stigma-bearing "stalk"
    style scars often diagnostic - Carex, Alnus vs. Betula
Ovary: female organ
Pericarp: mature wall of the ovary
    three layers
    exocarp: hard, tough
    mesocarp: spongy
    endocarp: stony
      Examples:
      Orange
        exocarp: orange part
        mesocarp: spongy part
        endocarp: yummy part
      Prune
        exocarp: skin
        mesocarp: yummy part
        endocarp: stone
      Pear
        exocarp: tough part inside yummy hypanthium
        mesocarp: spongy part inside
        endocarp: surrounds seed
Locule:
    seed chamber
    Ovule
    Egg

Carpel: megasporophyll making up ovary chamber, same as number of styles; e.g., 3 in cucumber, melon,
 
Shizocarp
    mericarps
    carpophores
 

SEED STRUCTURES


OVULE
    intugments (2n)
      seed wall (TESTA) usually formed from intugments, also intugments may form aril (fleshy covering) or caruncle (water storage organ)
    nucellus (1n)
    micropyle
    funiculus
      attachment scar of funiculus to placenta becomes HILUM in ripened ovule (=seed)
      funiculus of rotated (anatropous [vs. orthotropous] ovule becomes an encircling ridge =RAPHE
    embryo sack
      synergids
      egg
      polar bodies
    ENDOSPERM
      3n storage tissue resulting from "triple fusion" of 2 polar nuclei and one of the male nuclei from pollen
    antipodals

SEED WALL CROSS-SECTION
    epidermis
    mechanical layer (palisades) sclerenchyma or collenchyma
    parenchyma
EMBRYO MORPHOLOGY
    axis
      epicotyl
      hypocotyl
      radicle
    cotyledons

    Gramineae special features
      coleoptile: covers epicotyl
      coleorhiza: covers radicle
EMBRYO MORPHOLOGY
    POSITIONS in seed
    1. lateral vs. central linear embryos
    2. side vs. corner of triangular seeds: Rumex vs. Polygonum
    3. gap in encircling embryos - base or side

SEED SHAPES

Orientation with HILUM down

TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES
    circular, elliptical, lanceolate, linear, oblanceolate, oblong, obovate, ovate, sector-shaped, square, tear-shaped, triangular,
THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES
    biconvex, concavo-convex, cuboid, cylindric, discoid, ellipsoid, globose, linear, oblong-cylindric, obovoid, ovoid, pinched-reniform, plano-convex, pyramidal, pyriform, rectangular, reniform, rhomboid, sectoroid, trapezoidal,
SEED STRUCTURES

SEED SURFACE TEXTURES

EMBRYO TYPES

KEY BASED ON INTERNAL ANATOMY


TYPES TO KNOW

ACERACEAE Acer grandidentata wing, schizocarp
AGAVACEAE Yucca whippleyi wing or keel, colliculose
CACTACEAE Cereus giganteus hilum, shape, texture
CACTACEAE Opuntia leptocaulis raphe
COMPOSITAE Tragopogon dubius beak, scales
CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus occidentalis berry
CYPERACEAE Scirpus congdonii tubercle, awns
FAGACEAE Fagus grandifolia fruit, seed, keel
GRAMINEAE Zizania aquatica awn
LEGUMINOSAE Acacia gregii legume, seed, hilum
PINACEAE Pinus ponderosa pine seed, wing
PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago insularis sulcus
SCROPHULARIACEAE   Castilleja covilleana alveolate surface