FEMALE CONE MORPHOLOGY

apophysis umbo spine
    Ovuliferous Scale
    • Hairs, Papillae
    • Seed Scar (impression)
    • Scale Scar (abaxial)
    Apophysis
    • Umbo
    • Spine (prickle)
    Bract
    • prominent
      • Pseudotsuga, Larix (not laricina), Abies (variable)
    • reduced and/or fused to scale
      • Picea, Pinus, Tsuga, Thuja, Taxodium, Sequoia


Abies lasiocarpa
adaxial distal surface hairy
large free bract
seed scars
Larix laricina
seed scars
hairs proximal adaxial
fused bract
Picea engelmanii
bract fused
widest 1/2 - 1/3 from base
seed scars
Picea glauca
hairy
bract short blunt
widest 1/2 - 2/3 from base
seed scars
Pinus albicaulis
seed scars ad & abaxially
scale decayed proximally
umbo slightly pointed
Pinus aristata
hairy
seed scar ad & abaxially
long bristle
scale scar adaxially
Pinus banksiana
distinct seed scar
bract broadly attached
seed scars
Pinus contorta
seed scar ad & abaxially
scale scars abaxially
seed scars
Pinus flexilis
seed scars abaxially
very thick apophysis
umbo distinct
Pinus ponderosa
prominent umbo & spine
faint seed scar
fused bract
Pseudotsuga menziesii
hairy
distinct seed scar
bract protrudes
Sequoia sempervirens
rounded spine on apophysis
Taxodium distichum
scale fused to seed
umbo gland-like
Thuja plicata
adaxial surface concave
distally palillate-hairy
rounded point on umbo
Tsuga canadensis
hairy
seed scar
short serrated bract
Tsuga caroliniana
adaxially hairy
broad bract
Tsuga mertensiana
abaxial scale scars
hairy
pointed bract



Phylotaxy: note that scales and bracts are spirally arranged on the rachis

CHARACTERS: draw individual scales and record the following

TYPES TO DRAW



See Also

PINACEAE

Abies concolor + A. lasiocarpa
Larix
Picea
P. pungens
P. glauca
Pinus
P. lambertiana
P. jeffreyi
P. ponderosa
P. albicaulis
P. aristata + P. longaeva
P. discolor + P. edulis + P. monophylla
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Tsuga

TAXODIACEAE

Sequoia
Sequoiadendron