HISTORICAL DATA:

Meteorological data, Written documents and photographs ISSUES FOR CLIMATIC INTERPRETATION:
TYPES OF RECORDS
  1. Instrumental records
  2. Primary observations (result from specific meteorological condition)
  3. Weather-dependent phenomena: (result from complex meteorological conditions)
  4. Phenologies: seasonal biological phenomena
  5. Economic Production:
  6. Historic Photographs (Matched Pairs)

    Matched Photograph Pairs


    EXAMPLES OF WRITTEN DOCUMENTS:
    Tax records:
    Garcia et al. 203

    CALIBRATION OF HISTORIC DOCUMENTS: relating weather-dependent phenomena to written record
    Example: EL NIÑO History from historic documents:
    Quinn and Neal (1992) El Niños 5-point scale strength El Niño Strength Scale was considered
    1. high sea & air temp.
    2. red tides
    3. rain & floods
    4. raises in sea level
    5. departure of guano birds
    6. drastic reduction in fisheries . . .

    based on historic data


    based on geochemical data

    EUROPEAN HISTORIC CLIMATIC EVENTS

    1. Medieval Warm Period = Medieval Optimum = Viking Period
      A.D. 1050 - 1350 Greenland's temp. 2-4oC higher than today
    2. Little Ice Age
      A.D. 1350 - 1910 1-3oC colder than today (Campbell & McAndrews, 1993)
      • Viking colonies had already collapsed
      • Many tax assements reduced due to cold-related disasters
      • Dutch Canals Frozen
      • French Grape Harvest reduced
      • LIA events are associated with DROUGHTS in monsoonal Africa
        (Verschuren et al., 2000)

    SOUTHWESTERN PREHISTORIC CLIMATIC EVENTS

    1. Greater Summer Precipiation AD 1000 - 1400
      600 - 1000 years ago
      • population maxima for 19 of 27 Puebloan Sites on Colorado Plateau
      • population maximum in Tucson

    2. Arroyo Cutting
      • before 1890s Santa Cruz River meandering stream, grist mill near A-Mountain
      • example of complex interaction of cattle, climate, land use
    3. 1910 coldest, wettest in meteorological record
      • but used in calculating water volume for dams, irrigation


    Historical Readings

    HOMEWORK