NON-MARINE RECORDS: CORRELATIONS WITH THE MARINE SEQUENCE

OTHER REASONS TO STUDY LAND RECORDS:

CONNECTION between marine and land records is GLOBAL CLIMATIC CHANGE
      example: climate > continental glaciers > sea level > marine terraces

1. RAISED BEACHES NGDC Sea Level Database

2. ICE CORES (NGDC Ice Core Database)

3. LOESS DEPOSITS NGDC Loess Database

Loess is wind blown silt, produced by glacial activity as rock flower, or from deflation of desert soils: contains snails, vertebrate fossils, pollen.

EUROPEAN LOESS PROFILES
Studies by Kukla (1977) in Czechoslovakia have revolutionized dating of the Alpine Glacial Sequence and the European Land Mammal Sequence.

Idealized eastern European loess cycle (varies in time and place)
Kukla and others traced the loess sheets into
the Danube Ri. terraces to correlate loess sequence
with alpine glacial sequence
Wurm Isotope Stages 2-6 2 glacials
Riss Isotope Stages 7-12 3 glacials
Mindel Isotope Stages 13-18 3 glacials
Günz Isotope Stages 19-22 2 glacials

Revision of land mammal stages based on loess:
Example: Villafranchian - Biharian land mammal age
boundary is in European loess cycle "K"

CHINESE LOESS PROFILES : paleomagnetic susceptibility



Chinese loess magnetic susceptibility and grain size.

4. BOG & LAKE POLLEN RECORDS World Pollen Database

Birks and Birks 04
Birks and Birks 2004


INTERGLACIAL SUCCESSION
Interglacial pollen diagrams demonstrate both differences among interglacials, as well as consistent patterns due to (for example) soil development and leaching (in northern Europe).

5. OXYGEN ISOTOPES IN SPELEOTHEMS

Devils Hole Vein Calcite (Winograd et al., 1992)


Devil's Hole δ18O & δ13C ,red curve is Specmap δ18O (axis not shown)


MARINE-TERRESTRIAL CORRELATION DURING GLACIAL CYCLE B


Heinrich events in North Atlantic and Florida. ODP 609 events are labled H1-H6, numbers are ages (Ka).

http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pubs/blunier2001/blunier2001.html
READINGS

HOMEWORK

VOSTOK CORES
http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/paleo/icecore/antarctica/vostok/vostok.html
http://cdiac.esd.ornl.gov/trends/temp/vostok/jouz_tem.htm
http://www.nature.com/cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/nature/journal/v399/n6735/full/399429a0_fs.html
nature99petitjouzel.pdf