INTRODUCTION TO QUATERNARY ECOLOGY
GEOS.462 & 562 - ANTH. 462

General 9 Dendro 18 Paleocl 27 Macrof
1 History 10 Date Method 19 Clim Geol 28 Packrats
2 Holocene 11 Date Method 20 Clim Solar 29 Charcoal
3 Pluvial 12 Paleomag 21 Astronom 30 Photolith
4 Floods 13 Lichens 22 Atmospheric 31 Inverts
5 Faunas 14 Desert Varn 23 Aerosols 32 Soils
6 Ocean Cores 15 Tephra Layers 24 Sed Types 33 Historical
7 Non-Marine 16 Global Atm 25 Cave 34 Archeological
8 Annual Dating 17 Regional 26 Palynology 35 Periglacial
36 Pl Biogeogr

format


GENERAL REFERENCES


Bell M. and Walker, M.J.C. 1992. Late Quaternary Environmental Change. Physical and Human Perspectives. Longmans, London.

Berger, W.H., Imbrie, J., Hays, J., Kukla, G., and Saltzman, B. 1982. Milankovitch and Climate Understanding the Response to Astronomical Forcing. NATO ASI Series C: Mathemat. and Physical Sci. Vol. 126. 2 vols.

Berger, W.H. and Labeyrie, L.D. (Eds.) 1987. Abrupt Climatic Change. NATO ASI Series C: Mathematics and Physical Science Vol. 216.

Berglund, B.E. 1986. Handbook of Holocene Palaeoecology and Palaeohydrology. John Wiley, New York, 869 p.

Berglund, B.E., Birks, H.J.B., Ralska-Jasiewiczowa, M. & Wright, H.E. (Eds.) 1996. Palaeoecological Events during the last 15000 years. Regional Syntheses of Palaeoecological Studies of Lakes and Mires in Europe. J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester. 764 pp.

Betancourt, JL., Van Devender, T.R., and Martin, P.S. 1990. Packrat Middens The Last 40,000 years of Biotic Change. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, 467 p.

Birks, H.J.B. and Birks, H.H. 1980. Quaternary Palaeoecology. Univ. Park Press, Baltimore,. 289 p.

Bradley, R.S. 1999. Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary. International Geophysics Series v. 64, Academic Press. 613 p.

Bradley, R.S. and Jones, P.D. 1992. Climate Since A.D. 1500. Routledge, New York, 679 p.

Broecker, W.S. 1995. The Glacial World According to Wally. Eldigio Press, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University , Palisades, New York, 312 p. plus appendices.

Bryant, V.M., Jr. and Holloway, R.G. 1985. Pollen Records of Late-Quaternary North American Sediments. American Association of Stratigraphic Palynologists Foundation, Dallas Texas, 423 p.

Bull W.B. 1991.Geomorphic Responses to Climatic Change, Oxford University Press. New York, 326 p.

Cronin, T.M. 1999. Principles of Paleoclimatology: Perspectives in Paleobiology and Earth History. New York: Columbia University Press. Viewed online 7/04 at www.earthscape.org/r3/cronin/. Last updated 10/99.

Delcourt, H.R. and Delcourt, P.A. 1991. Quaternary Ecology: A Paleoecological Perspective. Chapman & Hall, New York, 242 p.

Diaz, H.F. and Markgraf, V. 1992. El Niño Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 476 p.

Easterbrook, D.J. Dating Quaternary Sediments. Gelogical Society of America Special Paper 227.

Eighmy, J.L. and Sternberg, R.S. 1990. Archaeomagnetic Dating. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 446 p.

Faegri, K. and J. Iversen. 1975. Textbook of pollen analysis. Hafner Press, New York, 295 p.

Flint, R.F. 1971. Glacial and Quaternary Geology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 892 p.

Grayson, D.G. The Desert's Past, A Natural Prehistory of the Great Basin. Smithsonian Press, Washington D.C., 356 p.

Grove, J.M. 1988. The Little Ice Age. Methuen, London, 498 p.

Haworth, E.Y. and Lund, J.W.G. 1984. Lake sediments and environmental history Studies in Palaeolimnology and Palaeoecology in honour of Winifred Tutin. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 411 p.

Horowitz, A. 1992. Palynology of Arid Lands. Elseiver, Amsterdam, 546 p.

Hecht, A.D. (ed.). 1985. Paleoclimate analysis and modeling. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 445 p.

Imbrie, J. and K.P. Imbrie. Ice Ages: solving the mystery. Enslow Publ., Hillside, New Jersey, 224 p.

Kurten, B. and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Columbia Univ. Press, New.York, 442 p.

Lamb, H. H. 1977. Climate History and the Future. Princeton Univ. Press, New Jersey, 834 p.

Mannion, A.M. 1991. Global Environmental Change a Natural an Cultural Environmental History. Longman Scientific and Technical, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 404 p.

Martin, P.S. and Klein, R.G. 1984. Quaternary Extinctions A Prehistoric Revolution. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, 892 p.

Matsch, C.L. 1976. North America and the Great Ice Age. McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 131 p.

Moore, P.D. & Webb, J.A. 1978. An illustrated guide to pollen analysis. Hodder & Stoughton, London, 133 p.

Morrison, R.B. Quaternary Nonglacial Geology: Conterminous U.S. Geological Soc. Amer, Geology of North America (DNAG) V. K-2.

Pielou, E.C. 1991. After The Ice Age: The Return of Life to Glaciated North America. University of Chicago Press. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, 366 p.

Rampino, M.R., Sanders, J.E., Newman, W.S., and Konigsson, L.K. (Eds.) 1987. Climate History, Periodicity, and Predictability. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 588 p.

Ruddiman, W.F. 2001. Earth's Climate, Past and Future. W.H. Freeman & Co., New York. 465 p.

Ruddiman, W.F. and Wright, H.E., Jr. (eds.) 1987. North America and adjacent oceans during the last deglaciation. Geol. Soc. Amer. Geol. North Amer. (DNAG) Vol. K-3.

Rutter, N.W. 1985. Dating Methods of Pleistocene Deposits and Their Problems. Geol. Assoc. Canada Reprint Ser. 2

Waters, M.R. 1992. Principles of Geoarcheology. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, 398 p.

West, R.G. 1968. Pleistocene Geology and Biology with Especial Reference to the British Isles. Longmans, Green & Co Ltd. 377 p.

Williams, M., Dunkerley, D., De Decker, P., Kershaw, A. and Stokes.T.1993 Quaternary Environments. Edward Arnold Publishers, N.Y. 329 p.


HISTORY OF PLEISTOCENE STUDY


ASSIGNED READINGS

Flint, R.F. 1971. Glacial and Quaternary Geology. John Wiley and Sons. 892 p. - CHAPTER 2

West, R.G. 1968. Pleistocene Geology and Biology with Especial Reference to the British Isles. Longmans, Green & Co Ltd. 377 p. - CHAPTER 11


OTHER REFERENCES

Axelrod, D.I. 1980. Contributions to the Neogene Paleobotany of central California. The Turlock Lake flora from Stanislaus County. Univ. Calif. Publ. Geol. Sci. 121:13-60.

Crompton, J.S. 2001. Holocene sea-level fluctuations inferred from the evolution of depositional environments of the southern Langebaan Lagoon salt marsh, South Africa. The Holocene 11: 395-405.

Curray, J.R. 1965. Late Quaternary history, continental shelves of the United States. In: The Quaternary of the United States. H.E. Wright, Jr., and D.G. Frey, (Eds.), pp. 723-735. Princeton University Press.

Evenson, E.B., Farrand, W.B., Eschman, D.F., Mickelson, D.M. and Maher, L.J. 1976. Greatlakean substage: a replacement for Valderan substage in the Lake Michigan Basin. Quaternary Research 6: 411 - 424.

Fillmore, L.R., McKay, E.D., and Lineback. J.A., 1979. Wisconsinan, Sangamonian and Illinoian stratigraphy in central Illinois. Midwest Friends of the Pleistocene 26th Field Conference. May 4-6, 1979.

Knutti, R., Flückiger, J., Stocker, T.F. and Timmermann, A. 2004. Strong hemispheric coupling of glacial climate through freshwater discharge and ocean circulation. Nature 430: 851-856.

Frye, J.C. and Willman, H.B. 1960. Classification of the Wisconsinan Stage in the Lake Michigan glacial lobe. Illinois State Geological Survey Circular 285. 16 p.

Gardner, J.V. et al. 1988. Clear Lake record s. the adjacent marine record: a correlation of their past 20,000 years of paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic responses. GSA Spec. Paper 214 171-182.

Jelgersma, S. 1966. Sea-level changes during the last 10,000 years. In: Proceedings, International symposium on World Climates from 8000 B.S. to 0 B.C. pp. 54-71. London: Royal Meteorological Society.

Luternaur, J.L. Clague, J.J., Conway, K.W., Barie, J.V., Blaise, B., and Mathewes, R.W. 1989. Late Pleistocene terrestrial deposits on the continental shelf of western Canada: Evidence for rapid sea-level change at the end of the last glaciation. Geology 17: 357-360.

Miller K.G., Fairbanks, R.G., and Mountain, G.S. 1987. Tertiary oxygen isotope synthesis, sea level height and continental margine erosion. Paleoceanography 2:1-20.

Pierce, K.L, Obradovich, J.D., and Friedman, I. 1976. Obsidian hydration dating and correlation of Bull Lake and Pinedale Glaciations near West Yellowstone, Montana. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 87:703-710.

Ruddiman, W.F. and J.-C. Duplessy. 1985. Conference on the last deglaciation: timing and mechanism. Quat. Res. 23:1-18.

Tripathi, A., Backman, J., Elderfield, H., Ferretti, P. 2005. Eocene bipolar glaciation associated with global carbon cycle changes. Nature 436: 341-346.

Wolf, J.A. 1993. Tertiary climatic changes at middle latitudes of western North America. Palaeo Palaeo Palaeo 108:195-205.

Zachos, J.C., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E., Billups, K. 2004. Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 ma to present Science 292: 686-693.

Zachos, J.C., Röhl, U., Schellenberg, A.S., Hodell, D.A., Kelly, D.C., Nicolo, M., Raffi, I., Lourens, L.J., McCarren, H., Kroon, D. 2005. Rapid Acidification of the Ocean During the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum Science 308: 1611-1615.

THE HOLOCENE


ASSIGNED READING

Chapter 6. Holocene Centennial and Decadal Climatic Variability.
Cronin, T.M. 1999. Principles of Paleoclimatology: Perspectives in Paleobiology and Earth History. New York: Columbia University Press. Viewed online 7/04 at www.earthscape.org/r3/cronin/. Last updated 10/99.

OTHER REFERENCES

Antevs, E. 1931. Late-Glacial Correlations and Ice Recession in Manitoba. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 168.

Antevs, E. 1938. Postpluvial climatic variations in the southwest. Bulletin American Meteorological Society 19: 30-33.

Antevs, E. 1948. The Great Basin, with emphasis on glacial and postglacial times. III Climatic changes and pre-white man. University of Utah Bulletin 38(20): 168-191.

Antevs, E. 1952. Cenozoic climates of the Great Basin. Sonderdruck aus der Geologischen Rundschau Bd. 40, Heft 1. Pp. 94-108.

Antevs, E. 1955. Geologic-climatic dating in the west. American Antiquity 20: 317-355.

Antevs, E. 1959. Geological age of the Lehner Mammoth site. American Antiquity 24:31-34.

Berry. W.B.N. 1968. Growth of a prehistoric time scale based on organic evolution. W.H. Freeman Co., San Francisco. 158 p.

Blytt, A. 1876. Essay on immigration of the Norwegian flora during alternating rainy and dry periods. (proposed: Arctic Subarctic Boreal Atlantic Subboreal Subatlantic)

Booth, D.B. 1987. Timing and process of deglaciation along the southern margin of the Cordilleran ice shee. pp. 71-909 in Ruddiman and Wright (DNAG).

Broecker, W.S., Kennett, J.P., Flower, B.P., Teller, J.T., Trumbore, S., Bonani, G., and Wolfli, W. 1989. Nature 341:318-321.

Bryan, F. 1986. Interocean exchange of thermocline water and its influence on thermohaline circulation. Nature 323: 301-304.

Cwynar, L.C. and W.A. Watts. 1989. Accelerator-Mass Spectrometer Ages for Late-Glacial events at Ballybetaugh, Ireland. Quat. Res. 31:377-381.

Davis, O.K. 1989. The regionalization of climatic change in western North America. p. 617-636 In: M. Leinen (Editor) "Paleoclimatology and Paleometeorology: modern and past patterns of global atmospheric transport." NATO ASI Series D. Reidel Publ.

Davis, O.K. and Sellers, W.D. 1994. Orbital History and seasonality of regional precipitation. In: J.D. Gunn (Editor), Global Climate - Human Life: Physical Contents of Historic Landscapes. Human Ecology 22:97-113.

Davis, O.K., Cutler, A.H., Meldah., K.H., Palacios-Fest, M.R. Schreiber, J.F., Jr., Lock, B.E., Williams, L.J., Lancaster, N., Shaw, C.A., and Sinitiere, S.M. Quaternary Geology of Bahai Adair and the Gran Desierto. Fieldtrip Guide for Fourth Workshop, IGCP 252, March 6-9, 1990, Tucson, AZ. 32 p.

Deevey, E.S. and Flint, R.F. 1957. Postglacial Hypsithermal interval. Science 125:182-184.

Denton, G.H. and W. Karlen. 1973. Holocene climatic variations -- their pattern and possible cause. Quat. Res. 3:155-205.

Forbes, E. 1846. On the connection between the distribution of the existing fauna and flora of the British Isles, and the goelogical changes which have affected their area, especially during the epoch of the Northern Drift. Mem. Geol. Surv. Gr. Brit. 1: 336-432. (Great Britain vegetation migration, pre-glacial warmth)

Goslar, T., Arnold M., Bard E., Kuc T., Pazdur M.F., Ralska-Jasiewiczowa M., Rózanski K., Tisnerat N., Walanus A., Wicik B., Wieckowski K., 1995. High concentration of 14C during the Younger Dryas cold episode. Nature 377: 414-417.

Gray, A. 1859. The flora of Japan. Scientific papers 1: 123-141. (thermal maximum [Tertiary] warmth)

Haynes, C.V., Jr. 1968. Preliminary report on the late Quaternary geology of the San Pedro Valley, Arizona. Southern Arizona Guidebook, Arizona Geological Society 3:79-96.

Harvey, L.D.D. 1989. Modelling the Younger Dryas. Quat Sci Rev 3:137-149

Iversen, J. 1956. Forest Clearance in the Stone Age. Scientific American 194: 36-41.

Jones, P.D., Osborn, T.J., Briffa, K.R. 2001. The evolution of climate over the last millennium. Science 292: 662-667.

Kaiser, K.F. 1994. Two Creeks interstade dated through dendrochronology and AMS. Quaternary Research 42:288-298.

Keigwin, L.D. and Jones, G.A. 1990. Deglacial climatic oscillations in the Gulf of California. Paleoceanography 5(6):1009-1023.

Kerner, A. 1870-1. Der Enfluss der Winde auf die Verbreitung der Samen in Hochgebirge. Zeits. Deut. Alpenver 2: 1-171. (postglacial xerothermic, plant migration northward)

Komarov, V.L. (D.Love Transl., 1988). Vegetation of the Soviet Polar Deserts. Cambridge Univ. Press, N.Y.

Kraft, J.C., Belknap, D.F., and Demarest,J.M. (1987). Prediction of the effects of sea-level change from paralic and inner shelf stratigraphic sequences. In Climate History, Periodicity and Predictability. (M.R. Rampino, J.E. Sanders, W.S. Newman, and L.K. Konigsson, Eds.), pp. 166-192. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York.

Lamb, H. H. 1977. Climate History and the Future. Princeton University Press.

Levesque, A.L., Cwynar, L.C. and Walker, I.R. 1994. A multiproxy investigation of late-glacial climate and vegetation chanage at Pine Ridge Pond, southwest New Brunswick, Canada. Quaternary Research 43:316-327.

Mann, M.E., Bradley, R.S., and Hughes, M.K. 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. American Geophysical Union Geophysical Research Letters 26: 759.

Mayewski, P.A., Meeker, L.D., Whitlow, S., Twickler, M.S., Morrison, M.C., Alley, R.B., Bloomfield, P., and Taylor, K. 1993. The atmosphere during the Younger Dryas. Science 261:195-197.

McAndrews, J.H. 1967. Pollen analysis and vegetational history of the Itasca Region, Minnesota. p. 2198–236 in E. Cushing and H. Wright, editors. Quaternary paleoecology. Yale University Press, New Haven, Connecticut.

Motyka, R.A. 2003. Little Ice Age subsidence and post Little Ice Age uplift at Juneau, Alaska, inferred from dendrochronology and geomorphology. Quaternary Research 59: 300-309.

Pons, A., de Beaulieu, J.-L., Guiot, J., and Reille, M. 1987. The Younger Dryas as a model of abrupt climate change. pp. 214-217 In: Berger, W.H. and Labeyrie, L.D., (Eds.) Abrupt climate change. Reidel, Dordecht.

Rind, D., Peteet, D.M., Broecker, W., McIntyre, A., Ruddiman, W. 1986. The impact of cold North Atlantic sea surface temperatures on climate: implications for the Younger Dryas Cooling (11-10K). Climatic Dynamics 1:3-33.

Rind, D., Peteet, D., Broecker, W.S., McIntyre, A., and Ruddiman, W. (1986). The impact of cold north Atlantic sea surface temperatures on climate: implications for the Younger Dryas cooling (11-10k). Climatic Dynamics 1: 3-33.

Rooth, C. 1982. Hydrology and ocean circulation. Progr. Oceanogr. 11:131-149.

Ruddiman, W.F. and J.-C. Duplessy. 1985. Conference on the last deglaciation: timing and mechanism. Quat. Res. 23:1-18.

Sears, P.B. 1942. Xerothermic theory. Botanical Review 8: 708-736.

Sernander, R. 1908. On the evidence of postglacial changes of climate furnished by the peat-mosses of northern Europe. Geol. Fren. Frh., 30, 456-478.

Sernander, R. 1910. Discussion. Int. Geol. Congr. 11 Compte Rendu 1: 404-409. (Subboreal = The Xerothermic Period, student of Blytt.)

Shane, L.C. 1987. Late-glacial vegetational and climatic history of the Allegheny Plateau and the Till Plains of Ohio and Indiana, U.S.A. Boreas 16: 1-20.

Tarasov, L. and Peltier, W.R. 2005. Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal. Nature 435: 662-665.

Teller, J.T., Boyd, M., Yang, Z., Kor, P.S.G. and Fard, A.M. 2005. Alternative routing of Lake Agassiz overflow during the Younger Dryas: new dates, paleotopography, and a revaluation. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 1890-1905.

Walker, I.R., Mott, R.J. and Smol, J.P. 1991. Allerod-Younger Dryas lake temperatures from midge fossils in Atlantic Canada. Science 253:1010-1012.

R.A. Watson, H.E. Wright, Jr. 1980. The end of the Pleistocene. Boreas 9:153-163.

Von Post, L. 1916. Om skogsträdpollen I sydsvenska torfmosselagerföljder. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlingar. 38: 384-390.

Weber, C.A. 1926. Grenzhorizont und Klimaschwankungen. Abhandl. Naturwiss. Vereins, Bremen 26: 98-106.

Wright. H.E., Jr. 1977. Quaternary vegetation history -- some comparisons between Europe and America. Ann Rev. Earth Plant Sci. 5:123-158.

H.E. Wright 1982. Holocene Chronostratigraphy for United States and southern Canada. Striae 16:53-55.

PLUVIAL LAKES


ASSIGNED READING

Licciardi, J.M. 2001. Chronology of latest Pleistocene lake-level fluctuations in the pluvial Lake Chewaucan basin, Oregon, USA. Journal Quaternary Science 16(6): 545–553.

see:
R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 7.6


OTHER REFERENCES

Adams, K.D., Wesnousky, S.G., and Bills, B.G., 1999. Isostatic rebound, active faulting, and potential geomorphic effects in the Lake Lahontan basin, Nevada and California. Geological Society of America Bulletin 111(12) :1739-1756.

Benson, Currey, Dorn, Lajoie, Oviatt, Robinson, Smith, Stine. 1990. Chronology of expansion and contraction of four Great Basin lake systems during the past 35,000 years. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 78: 241-286.

Butzer, K.W., Isaac, G.L., Richardson, J.L. and Washburn-Kamau 1971. Radiocarbon dating of east African lake levels. Science 175: 1069-1076.

Davis, O.K. 1998. Palynological evidence for vegetation cycles in a 1.5 million year pollen record from the Great Salt Lake, Utah, U.S.A. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 138: 175-185.

Harrison, S.P. 1993. Late Quaternary lake-level changes and climates of Australia. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 80: 211-226.

Liddicoat, J.C. and R.S. Coe. 1997. Paleomagneitc investigation of Lake Lahontan sediments and its application for dating pluvial events in the northwestern Great Basin. Quaternary Research 47: 45-53

Lougee, R. J. 1953. A chronology of postglacial time in eastern North America. Scientific Montly 76: 259-276.

Morrison, R.B. 1991. Quaternary stratigraphic, hydrologic, and climatic history of the Great Basin, with emphasis on Lakes Lahontan, Bonneville, and Tecopa. pp. 283-321 IN: Morrison, R.B. (Ed.) Quaternary Nonglacial Geology: Conterminous U.S. GSA DNAG Vol. K-2.

Oviatt, C.G. 1988. Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake fluctuations in the Sevier Lake Basin, Utah, USA.. Journal of Palaeolimnology 1: 9-21.

Owen, R.B., Barthelmew, J.W. Renaut, R.W. and Vincens, A. 1982. Paleomlimnology and archeology of Holocene deposits northeast of Lake Trakana, Kenya. Nature 198:523-529.

Perkins, Sid. 2002. Once upon a lake, the life, times, and demise of the world's largest lake. Science News 162: 283-284. Avialable online at http://www.sciencenews.org/ viewed Nov. 19, 2002.

Pielou, E.C. 1991. After the Ice Age, The return of life to Glaciated North America. Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago. 366 p.

Quade, J. 1986. Late Quaternary environmental changes in the upper Las Vegas Valley, Nevada. Quaternary Research 26:340-357.

Smith, G.I. and F.A. Street-Perrott. 1983. Pluvial lakes of the western United States. pp. 190-212 IN: Porter, S.C. and Wright, H.E. (Eds.) Late Quaternary Environments of the United States. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Snyder, C. T. and W. B. Langbein. 1962. The Pleistocene Lake in Spring Valley, Nevada, and its Climatic Implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 67(6): 2385-2394.

Stine, S. 1990. Late Holocene fluctuations of Mono Lake, eastern California Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 78: 333-381.

Street, F.A. and Grove, A.T. 1979. Global maps of lake-level fluctuations since 30,000 yr B..P. Quaternary Research 12:83-118.

Thompson, R.S., Benson, L., and Hattori, E.M. 1986. A revised chronology for the last Pleistocene lake cycle in the central Lahontan Basin. Quaternary Research 25:1-9.

Waters, Michael Richard. 1980. MS. Lake Cahuilla: Late Quaternary lacustrine history of the Salton Trough, California. 74p. Bull, William B.. Geology, Stratigraphic

Waters, M.R. 1989. Late Quaternary lacustrine history and paleoclimatic significance of Pluvial Lake Cochise, southeastern Arizona. Quaternary Research 32: 1-11.

PLEISTOCENE FLOODS



ASSIGNED READING

O'Connor, J.E.and Benito, G. 2003. Number and size of last-glacial Missoula floods in the Columbia River valley between the Pasco Basin, Washington, and Portland, Oregon. GSA Bulletin 115: 624–638.

see:
Parfit, Michael. 1995. Floods that carved the West. Smithsonian Magazine 1995: (2) 48-61.


OTHER REFERENCES

Baker, V.R. and Nummendal, D. 1978. The channeled scabland. NASA Planetary Geol. Program Publ.

Baker, V.R. Benito, G. and Rudoy, A.N. 1993. Paleohydrology of Late Pleistocene superflooding Altay Mountains, Siberia. Science 259:348-350.

Bretz, J.H. 1923. The channeled scabland of the Columbia Plateau. Jour. Geology 31:617-649

Kehew E.W. and Clayton, L. 1983. pp. 187-209 IN: J.T. Teller and L. Clayton Eds Glaical Lake Agassiz. Geol. Soc. Canada Special Pap. 26.

Leverington, D.W., Mann, J. D., Teller, J. T. 2000. Changes in the bathymetry and volume of Glacial Lake Agassiz between 11,000 and 9300 14C yr B.P. Quaternary Research. 54: 174-181.

Malde, M.E. 1968. The catastropic late Pleistocene Bonneville flood in the Snake River Plain, Idaho. U.S.G.S Prof. Paper 596, 52 p.

O'Connor, J.E. 1993. Hydrology, Hydraulics and Geomorphology of th Bonneville Flood. GSA Special Paper 274. 83 p.


QUATERNARY FAUNAS


ASSIGNED READINGS

Martin, P.S. 1973. The discovery of America. Science 179:969-974.

Alroy, J. 2001. A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction. Science 292: 1893-1896. Viewed online at http://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/~alroy/pdfs/2001-Science-292-1893.pdf Accessed 7/04.

Woodburne, M.O. and Swisher, C. C. III. 1995. Land mammal high-resolution geochronology, interconteinental overland dispersals, sea level, climate, and vicariance. SEPM Spec. Publ. 54: 336-363.

Pleistocene/Holocene Plant extinctions.
Jackson, S.T. and Weng, C. 1999. Late Quaternary extinction of a tree species in eastern North America PNAS 96: 13847-13852. Viewed online at http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/96/24/13847 Accessed 7/04.

OTHER REFERENCES

Brackenridge, G.R. 1981. Terrestrial paleoenvironmental effects of a late Quaternary - Age supernova. Icarus 46: 81-93.

Bruner, E., Manzi, G., Arsuaga, J.L. 2003. Encephalization and allometric trajectories in the genus Homo: Evidence from the Neandertal and modern lineages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:15335-15340.

Haynes, C.V., Jr. 1987. Clovis origin update. The Kiva 52: 83-93.

Haynes, C.V., Jr. 1991. Geoarchaeological and paleohydrological evidence for a Clovis-age drought in North America and its bearing on extinction. Quaternary Research 35:438-450.

Holdaway, R.N. and Jacomb, C. 2000. Rapid extinction of the moas (Aves: Dinornithiformes): Model, eest, and implications. Science 287: 2250-2254.

Jernvall, J. Hunter, J.P. and Fortelius, M. 1996. Molar tooth diversity, disparity, and ecology in Cenozoic Ungulate Radiations. Science 274:1489-1492.

Lindsay, E.H. 1974. Cenozoic vertebrate localities and faunas in Arizona. J. Arizona Acad. Sci. 9:3-24.

Lindsay, E.H. 1978. Late Cenozoic vertebrate faunas, southeastern Arizona. New Mexico Geol. Soc. Guidebook, 29th Field Confer.

Lindsay, E.H. 1984. Late Cenozoic mammals from northwestern Mexico. J. Vert. Paleontol. 4:208-215.

Lundelius, E.L., Jr. (8 others). 1987. The North American Quaternary Sequence. pp. 211-235 IN: Woodburne, M.O. (Ed.) Cenozoic mammals of North America Geochronology and Biostratigraphy. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkeley.

McDonald, J.M. 1984. The reordered North American selection regime and Late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions. Pp. 404-439 IN: Martin, P.S. & Klein, R.G. Quaternary Extinctions a prehistoric revolution. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.

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OCEAN CORES



ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 6

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NON-MARINE RECORDS



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R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 7

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Wolff, E.W., J.C. Moore, H.B. Clausen, C.U. Hammer, J. Kipfstuhl, and K. Fuhrer. 1995. Long-term changes in the acid and salt concentrations of the Greenland Ice Core Project ice core from electrical stratigraphy. Journal of Geophysical Research 100:16249-16263.

Woolfenden, W. B. 1996. Late-Quaternary vegetation history of the southern Owens Valley region, Inyo County, California. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 347 p.

Xiao, J.L., Porter, S.C., An, Z.S., Kumai, H., and Yoshikawa, S. 1995. Grain size of quartz as an indicator of winter monsoon strength on the Loess Plateau of central hina during the last 130,000 yr. Quaternary Research 43: 22-29.

revision of the GRIP core age model (Sushma Prasad 9/03)

1. Bjorck, S., Walker, M. J. C., Cwynar, L. C., Johnsen, S., Knudsen, K. L., Lowe, J. J. and Wohlfarth, B. 1998. An event stratigraphy for the Last Termination in the north Atlantic region based on the Greenland ice-core record: a proposal by the INTIMATE group. Journal of Quaternary Science 13: 283-292.

2. Lowe, J. J., Hoek, W. Z. and INTIMATE Group. 2001. Inter-regional correlation of palaeoclimatic records for the Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition: a protocol for improved precision recommended by the INTIMATE project group. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 1175-1187.

3. Johnsen S. J., Dahl-Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Steffensen, J. P., Clausen, H. B., Miller, H., Masson-Delmotte, V., Sveinbjornsdottir, A. E. and White J. 2001. Oxygen isotope and palaeotemperature records from six Greenland ice-core stations: Camp Century, Dye-3, GRIP, GISP2, Renland and NorthGRIP. Journal Of Quaternary Science 16: 299-307.

4. There is a corrected timescale for the GRIP ice core called ss09sea. You can download it together with a reference to Johnsen et al, 2001 on the homepage http://test-glac.gfy.ku.dk under 'data'.

A related reference which confirms the GISP2 chronology of events is in

5. Wang et al. (2001). A high resolution absolute dated late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu cave, China. Science 294, p. 2345-2348.


DATING OF LATE-QUATERNARY DEPOSITS


PAGES: Past Global Changes Newsletter. Articles on annual resolution techniques. Varves p.1-4 (v.11), Corals p.9-13(v.), Tree Rings p.15-17 (v. ), Speleothems p. 19-20 (v.12), Ice Cores p.21-26(v.12). Reading PAGES Newsletter Home Page

Annual Dating Methods

Varve References
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    Tolonen, K. 1980 Comparison between radiocarbon and varve dating in L. Lampellonjarvi, S. Finland. Boreas 9:11-19.

    Thorton, S.E. 1986. Origin of mass flow sedimentary structures in hemipelagic basin deposits: Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland. Geological-Marine letters 6:15-19.

    Wait, RB, Jr. 1984. Periodic J”kulhlaups from Pleistocene Glacial Lake Missoula - New Evidence from varved sediment in Northern Idaho and Washington. Quaternary Research 22:46-58

    Wilson, M.V. 1977 Paleoecology of Eocene lacustrine varves at Horsefly, B.C. Can. Jour. Earth Sci. 14:953-962.

    Weedon, G.P., 1986. Hemipelagic shelf sedimentation and climatic cycles: the basal Jurassic (Blue Lias) of south Britain. Earth Planet. Sci. Letters, 76:321-335.

    Weedon, G.P., 1988. The detection and illustration of regular sedimentary cycles using Walsh power spectra and filtering, with examples from the Lias of Switzerland. Dept. Earth Science, Univ. Cambridge, 41 p.

    Williams,G.E. 1986. The solar cycle in Precambrian time. Sci.Amer. 255:88-97.

    Wohlfarth B., Bjork, S., Possnert, G., Lemdahl, G., Brunnberg, L., Ising, J., Olsson, S. and Svensson, N. 1993. AMS dating of the Swedish varved clays of the last glacial/interglacial transition and the potential difficulties of calibrating late Weichselian /absolute/ chronologies. Boreas 22:113-128.

Ice Core References
    Hammer CU, Clausen HB, Dansgaard W, Gunderstrup N, Johnson SJ, and Reeh N. 1978. Dating of Greenland Ice Cores by flow models isotopes volcanic debris and continental dust. J. Glaceol. 20:3-26.

    Hammer, CU, Clausen HB, and Dansgaard W. 1980. Greenland ice sheet evidence of post-glacial volcanism and its climatic impact. Nature 288:230-235.

    Kyle, Palais, Delmas. 1982. Ann. Glaciol. 3:172-77

    Neftel A, Oeschger H, Schwander J, Staufer B, Zumbrunn R. 1982. Ice core measurements give atmospheric CO2 content during the past 40,000 yr. Nature 295:202

    Risbo T, Clausen HB, Rasmussen KL. 1981 Supernova and nitrate in the Greenland Ice Core. Nature. 294:637-639.
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    Thompson LG, Mosley-Thompson E, Davis ME, Bolzan JF, Dai J, Gundestrup N, Yao T, Wu X, Klein L, and Xie Z. 1989. Holocene - late Pleistocene climatic ice core records from Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Science 246:474- 476.

    Thompson, L.G., E. Mosley-Thompson, M.E. Davis, P-N., Lin, K.A. Henderson, J. Cole-Dai, J.F. Bolzan and K-B. Liu., 1995. Late Glacial Stage and Holocene tropical ice core records from Huascarán, Peru. Science, 269, 46-50.


Coral References
    Charles, C.D., Hunter, D.E., and Fairbanks, R.G. 1997. Interaction Between the ENSO and the Asian Monsoon in a Coral Record of Tropical Climate. Science 277: 925-928.

    Cole, J. and Fairbanks, R.G. 1990. The southern Oscillation recorded in the ë 18O of corals from Tarawa Atoll, Paleoceanography, 5:669-683.

    Dunbar, R.B. Wellington, G.M., Colgan, M.W., and Glynn, P.W., 1994, Eastern Pacific Sea Surface Temperature since 1600 A.D.: The d18O Record of Climate Variability in Galapagos Corals, Paleoceanography, 9:291-315.

    Isdale, P. 1984. Fluorescent bands in massive corals record centuries of costal rainfall. Nature 310:578-579.

    Lough, J.M. and Barnes, D.J. 1990. Intra-annual timing of density band formation of Porites coral from the central Great Barrier Reef. J. Experimental Marine Biology Ecology 135:35-75.

    Lough, J.M. and Barnes, D.J. 1990. Possible relationships between environmental variables and skeleton density in coral colony from the central Great Barrier Reef. J. Experimental Marine Biology Ecology.

    Quinn, T.M., Taylor, F.W., and Crowley, T.J, 1993. A 173 Year Stable Isotope Record from a Tropical South Pacific Coral. Quaternary Science Reviews, vol. 12, pp 407-418.

    Shen, G.T., J.E. Cole, D.W. Lea, L.J. Linn, T.A. McConnaughey, and R.G.Fairbanks, 1992. Surface ocean variability at Galapagos from 1936-1982: Calibration of geochemical tracers in corals. Paleoceanography, 7:563-588.

    Shen, G.T., Linn, T.A., Campbell, J.E., Cole, D.W. and Fairbanks, R.G. 1992. A chemical indicator of trade wind reversal in corals from the western tropical Pacific. J. Geophysical Res. 92: 12689-12698.


DENDROCHRONOLOGY



ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 10

OTHER REFERENCES

Bard, E., Hamelin, B., Fairbanks, R.G., and Zindler, A. 1990. Calibration of the 14C timescale over the past 30,000 years using mass spectrometric U-Th ages from Barbados corals. Nature 345:405-410

Beer, J., Siegenthaler, U., Bonani, G., Finkel, R.C., Oeschger, H., Suter, M., and Wolfli, W. 1988. Information on past solar activity and geomagnetism from 10Be in the Camp Century ice core. Nature 331: 675-679.

Betancourt, J.L., Dean, J.S., and Hull, H.M. 1986. Prehistoric long-distance transport of construction beams, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. American Antiquity 51:370-375.

Cohen and Lintz 1974. Long term variability in the sunspot cycle. Nature 240:398-400.

Damon, P.E. and T.W. Linick. 1986. Geomagnetic-Heliomagnetic modulation of atmospheric radiocarbon production. Radiocarbon 28:266-278.

Landscheidt, T. 1987. Long-Range forcasts of solar cycles and climate change. pp. 421-445 in Rampino, M.R., Sanders, J.E., Newman, W.S. and Konigsson, L.K. Climate History, Periodicity, and Predictability. Van Nostram Reinhold,NY Merrill, R.T. and McElhinny, M.W. 1983. The Earth's magnetic field, its history, origin, and planetary perspective: Academic Press, London, 401 p.

Radick, Lockwood, Balliunas. Stellar Activity and Brightness. Science 247:39-44.

Stiegenthaler et al. 1980. 14C variations caused by changes in the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon 22:177-191.

Stokes, M.A. and Smiley, T.L. 1968. An introduction to tree-ring dating. U of A Press.

Stuiver, M., and Kra, R.S. 1986. Proceedings of the twelfth international radiocarbon conference - Trondheim, Norway. Radiocarbon 28(2B).

Stuiver and Quay, 1980. "C14 and a variable sun." Science 207:11-19.

Swetnam, T. W. 1993. Fire history and climate change in giant sequoia groves. Science 262: 885-889.

Swetnam, T.W. and Betancourt, J.L. 1990. Fire-southern Oscillation relations in Southwestern United States. Science 249:1017-1019.

DATING TECHNIQUES


ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 3.1-2, 4.2-3

OTHER REFERENCES

Bard, E., B. Hamelin, R.G.Fairbanks, and A.Zindler, 1990. Calibration of the 14C timescale over the past 30,000 years using mass spectrometric U-Th ages from Barbados corals. Nature 345, 405-409.

Beck, J.W., Richards, DA, Edwards, RL, Silverman, BW, Smart, PL, Donahue, DJ, Hererra-Osterheld, S., Burr, GS, Calsoyas, L., Jull, AJT, Biddulph, 2001. Extremely large variations of atmospheric 14C concentration during the last glacial period. Nature 292: 2453-2457.

Berger, R., Taylor, R.E., and Libby, W.F. 1967. Radiocarbon content of mairne shells from the California and Mexican west coast. Science 158: 864-866.

Bischoff, J.L., N.Soler, J.Maroto and R.E.Julia, 1989. Abrupt Mousterian/Aurignacian Boundary at c.40 ka bp: Accelerator 14C dates from LArbreda Cave (Catalunya, Spain). Journal of Archeological Science 16, 563-576.

Brennan, R. and Quade, J., 1996. Fossil snails in the southern Great Basin: Evidence for reliable land snail ages and constraints on the 14C content of paleogroundwaters. Quaternary Research.

Burchuladze, A.A. Chudy, Eristavi, Pagva, Povinec, Sivo, and Togonidze. Anthropogenic 14C variations in atmospheric CO2 and wines. Radiocarbon 31:771-776.

Dom, R.I., A.J.T. Jull, D.J. Donahue, T.W.Linick, and L.J.Toolin, 1989. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of rock varnish. Geological Society of America Bulletin 101, 1363-1372.

Faure, G., 1986. Chapter 22: Cosmogenic carbon-14 and tritium, pp.386-404 in: Principles of isotope geology 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons: New York: 589 pp. Gillespie, R. and Pollach, H.A., 1979, The Suitability of marine shells for radiocarbon dating of Australian prehistory. In Berger, R. and Suess, H., eds.) Radiocarbon Dating, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference, Los Angeles, Univ. Calif Press, p.404-421.

Fairbanks, R.G., Mortlock, R.A., Chiu, T.-C., Cao, L., Kaplan, A., Guilderson, T.P., Fairbanks, T.W., Bloom, A.L., Grootes, P.M., Nadeau,M.-J., 2005. Radiocarbon calibration curve spanning 0 to 50,000 years BP based on paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C dates on pristine corals Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 1781-1796.

Gillespie, R. et al., 1992. AMS dating of alluvial sediments on the southern Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. Radiocarbon 34, 29-36

Gillespie, R. et al., 1991. AMS radiocarbon dating in the study of and environments: examples from Lake Eyre, South Australia. Palaeogr. Palaleocl. Palaeoec. 84, 333-338.

Goodfriend, G.A. and J.J.Stipp, 1983. Limestone and the problem of radiocarbon dating of land-snail shell carbonate. Geology 11, 575-577.

Goss-Levi, B, 1990. Uranium-thorium dating sets the clock back on carbon-14 ages. Physics Today, p. 20-21.

Harrison, K. G., W,S.Broecker, and G.Bonani, 1993. The effect of changing land use on soil radiocarbon. Science 262, 725-726.

Levin, I, Schuchard, J., Kromer, B., and , Münnich, K.O. 1989. The Continental European Suess Effect. Radiocarbon 31 (3): 431-441.

Libby, W.F. 1955. Radiocarbon dating. Univ. Chicago Press.

Long, A., O.K. Davis, and J.DeLanois, 1992. Separation and 14C dating of pure pollen from lake sediments: nanofossil AMS dating. Radiocarbon 34(3), 557-560.

Riggs, A.C., 1984. Major carbon-14 deficiency in modem snail; shells from Southern Nevada Springs, Science, 224: 58-6 1.

Rooseveldt, A. C. et al., 1996. Paleoindian cave dwellers in the Amazon: the peopling of the Americas. Science 272, 373-384.

Shackleton, N.J., Duplessy, J.-C, Arnold, M., Maurice, P., Hall, M.A., and Cartlidge, J. 1988. Radiocarbon age of last glacial Pacific deep water. Nature 335:708-711.

Sharp, W.D., Ludwig, K.R., Chadwick, O.A., Amundson, R., and Glaser, L.L. 2003. Dating flucial terraces by 230Th/U on pedogenic carbonate, Wind River Basin, Wyoming. Quaternary Research 59: 139-150.

Stafford, T.W.Jr., K.Brendel, and R.Duhamel, 1988. Radiocarbon, 13C and 15N analysis of fossil bone: removal of humates with XAD-2 resin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 52, 2257-2267.

Stuiver, M. et al., 1993. Radiocarbon: Calibration 1993, v.35, 244p.

Stuiver, M. And Polach, H.A. 1977. Discussion: reporting of 14C data. Radiocarbon 19:355-363.

Suess, H.E. 1955. Radiocarbon concentration in modern wood. Science 122: 415-417.

Taylor, R.E. and Berger, R. 1967. Radiocarbon content of marine shells from the Pacific coasts of Central and South America. Science 158: 1180 - 1182

Trumbore, S. et al., 1996. Rapid exchange between soil carbon and atmospheric carbon dioxide driven by temperature change. Science 272, 393-396.

Wang, Y. and Amundson, R., 1996. Radiocarbon dating of soil organic matter. Radiocarbon 45., 282-288.

DATING METHODS


ASSIGNED READING R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 4.2

Luminescence References
    Aitken, M. J., 1992. Optical dating. Quat. Sci. Reviews 11, 127-132.

    Aitken, M. J., 1985. Thermoluminescence Dating. Academic Press, New York, 359 p.

    Berger, G. W., 1988. Dating Quaternary events by luminescence, in Dating Quaternary Sediments (ed. D. J. Easterbrook) Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 227, p. 13-50.

    Forman, S. L., Jackson, M. E., McCalpin, J., and Maat, P., 1988. The potential of using thermolumunescence to date buried soils developed on colluvial and fluvial sediments from Utah and Colorado, USA: preliminary results. Quat. Sci. Reviews 7, 287-293.

    Forman, S. L., 1989. Applications and limitations of thermoluminescence to date Quaternary sediments. Quat. International 1, 47-59.

    Ikeya, M. and K. Ohmura. 1984. Electron spin resonance age of Pleistocene shells measured by radiation assessment. Geochem J.

    Roberts, R., Jones, R., and Smith, M. A., 1990. TL dating of a 50,000 year old human occupation in northern Australia. Nature 345, 153-156.

    Stokes, S. and Gaylord, D. R., 1993. Optical dating of Holocene dune sands in the Ferris dune field, Wyoming. Quaternary Research 39, 274-281.

    Valladas, H., Geneste JM, Joron JL, Chadelle JP. 1986. TL dating of Le Moustier (Dordogne, France). Nature 322, 452-454.

    Valladas, H., Joron JL, Valladas G, Arsenberg B Bar-Yosuf O, Belfer-Cohen A, Goldberg P, Valille H, Miegnon L, Rak Y, Techernov E, Tiller AM, Vandermerch B. 1987. TL dates for the Neanderthal briar site at Kebara in Israel. Nature 330, 159-160.

    Valladas, H., 1992. TL dating of flint. Quat. Sci. Reviews 11, 1-5.

    Wintle, A. G. and Packman, S. C., 1988. TL ages for three sections in Hungary. Quat. Sci. Reviews 7, 315-320.


Fission Track References
    Fleischer RL, Price PB and Walker RM 1975 Nuclear tracks in solids: principles and applications . Univ California Press, Berkeley 605 p.
    Naeser DW, and Naeser ND. 1988. Fission-track dating of Quaternary events. pp. 1-12 IN: Easterbrook, DJ. Dating Quaternary Sediments. Geological Society of America Special Paper 227.

Amino Acid Dating References
    Bada, J. L. et al, 1974. New evidence for the antiquity of man in North America deduced from aspartic acid racemization. Science 184, 791-793.

    Bada, J. L. et al, 1984. Accelerator mas spectrometry radiocarbon ages of amino acid extracts from California palaeoindian skeletons. Nature 312, 442-444.

    Bada, J. L. et al, 1989. Amino acid racemization in bone and the boiling of the German Emperor Lothar 1. Applied Geochemistry 4, 325-327.

    Brooks, A.S., Hare, P.E., Kokis, J.E., Miller, G.H., Ernst, R.D., Wendorf, F. 1990. Dating Pleistocene archeological sites by protein diagenesis in ostrich eggshell. Science 248:60-64.

    Clark, P.U. et al. 1989. Quaternary aminostratigraphy of Mississippi Valley loess. GSA Bull. 101: 918-926.

    Dethier, D. P. and McCoy, W. D., 1993. Aminostratigraphic relations and age of Quaternary deposits, northern Espafiola Basin, New Mexico. Quaternary Research 39: 222-230.

    Goodfriend, G. A., 1987. Chronostratigraphic studies of sediments in the Negev Desert, using Amino Acid epimerization analysis of land snail shells. Quaternary Research 28: 374-392.

    Hearty, P.J. Kaufman, D. S. 2000. Whole-rock aminostratigraphy and Quaternary sea-level history of the Bahamas. Quaternary Research 28: 163-173.

    McCoy, W. D. , 1987. Quaternary Aminostratigrphy of the Bonneville Basin, western U.S. GeoL Soc. Am. Bull. 98: 99-112.

    McCoy, W.D. 1982. Isoleucine epimerization in fossil gastropods shells and the late Quaternary paleoclimates of the northern Bonneville Basin. AMQUA Abstr. p.135.

    Miller, G. H., and Hare, P. E., 1980. Amino acid geochronology: integrity of the carbonate matrix and potential of molluscan fossils. In: Biochemistry of Amino acids (Ed. P.E. Hare), Wiley, New York, 415-451.

    Rutter, N.W. et al., 1985. Dating methods of Pleistocene deposits: IV. Amino acid racemization dating. In: Dating methods of Pleist. deposits and other problems (Ed.N.W. Rutter) Geos.Canada, Rep Ser 2, 23-30.
Obsidian Hydration References
    Anovitz, L. M. Elam, J. M., Riciputi, L. R., Cole, D. R. 1999. The failure of obsidian hydration dating: sources, implications and new directions: Journal Archaeol. Sci 26: 735-752.

    Easterbrook, D.J. Dating Quaternary Sediments. GSA Special Paper 227.18:11-17.

    Pierce, K.L, Obradovich, J.D., and Friedman, I. 1976. Obsidian hydration dating and correlation of Bull Lake and Pinedale Glaciations near West Yellowstone, Montana. Geol. Soc.
Surface Dating References
    Bierman, P. R. et al., 1995. Cosmogenic ages for earthquake recurrence intervals and debris flow fan deposition, Owens Valley, California. Science 270, 447-450.

    Cerling, T. E. and Craig, H., 1994. Goomorphology and insitu cosmogenic isotopes. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sceince Letters 22, 273-317.

    Cerling, T.E., 1990. Dating geomorphic Surfaces using cosmogenic 3He. Quaternary Research 33, 148-156.

    Gosse, J. C., 1995. 1OBe dating of the duration and retreat of the last Pinedale Glacial Sequence. Science 268, 1329-1333.

    Gosse, J.C., and Phillips, F.M., 2001. Terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides: theory and application. Quaternary Science Reviews 20, pp. 1475-1560.

    Lal, D, 1992. Cosmic ray labeling of erosion surfaces: in situ nuclide production rates and erosion models. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 104, 424-439.

    Laughlin, A. J. et al., 1994. Dating of Quaternary basalts using the cosmogenic 3He and 14C methods with implications for excess 4OAr. Geology 22, 135-138.

    Oldfield, F. and Appleby, P.G. 1984. Emperical testing of 210Pb dating models for lake sediments. In Lake sediments and environmental history (E.Y. Haworth and J.W.C. Lund eds.) p. 92-124. Univ. Minnesota Press.

    Poreda, R. J. and Cerling, T. E., 1992. Cosmogenic neon in recent lavas from the western U. S. Geophysical Research Letters 19, 1863-1866.

    Ritchie, J.C. and J.R. McHenry. 1990. Application of radioactive fallout 137Cs for measuring soil erosion and sediment accumulation rates and pattersn: a review. J. Environ. Quality. 19:215-233.

    Zreda, M. G. et al., 1991. Cosmogenic 36CI production rates in terrestrial rocks. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 105, 94-109.

    Zreda, M. G., 1993. Cosmogenic 36CI dating of a young basaltic eruption complex, Lathrop Wells, Nevada. Geology 21, 57-60.

Uranium Series References
    Bischoff, J. L. and Fitzpatrick, J. A., 1991. U-series dating of impure carbonates: an isochron technique using total-sample dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55, 543-554.

    Bischoff, J. L., Julia, R., and Mora, R., 1988. Uranium dating of the Mousterian occupation at Abric Romani, Spain. Nature 332, 68-70.

    Bischoff, J.L.. et al., 1988. A test of uranium-series dating of fossil tooth enamel: results from Tournai Cave, France. Applied Geochemistry 3, 145-15 1.

    Edwards, R. L. Chen JH, Lu TL, Wasserberg GJ. 1987. Precise timing of the last interglacial period from mass spectrometric determination of 23OTh in Corals. Science 236, 1547-1553.

    Faure, G., 1986, Principles of Isotope Geology. John Wiley and Sons, Chapter 21, p. 363-381.

    Gallup, C. R., Edwards, G. L., Johnson, R, G, 1994, The timing of high sea-levels over the past 200,000 years. Science 263, 796-800.

    Ku, The-Lung, Bull, W. B., Freeman, S. T., and Knauss, K. G., 1979. 23OTh-234U dating of pedogenic carbonates in gravelly desert soils of the Vidal Valley, southeastern California. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 90, 1063-1073.

    Lao, Y. and Benson, L., 1988. Uranium-Series age estimates and paleoclimatic significance of Pleistocene tufas from the Lahontan Basin, California and Nevada. Quaternary Research 30, 165-176.

    Ludwig, K. R. et al., 1992, Mass-Spectrometric 23OTh-234U-238U dating of the Devil's Hole calcite vein. Science 258, 284-287.

    Luo, S. and Ku, The-Lung, 1991. U-series dating: a generalized method employing total sample dissolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 55, 555-563.

    Paces, J. B. et al., 1994. Preliminary U-series disequilibrium and TL ages of surficial deposits and paleosols associated with Quaternary faults, eastern Yucca Mountain. American Nuclear Society High-level Radioactive Waste Management Proceedings (Fifth Conference), p. 2391-2401.

    Paces, J. et al., 1993. Late Quaternary history and uranium isotopic compositions of ground-water discharge deposits, Crater Flat, Nevada. American Nuclear Society High-level Radioactive Waste Management Proceedings (fourth Conference),

    Slate, J. L. et al., 1991. Soil-genesis in the Pinacate volcanic field, northwestern Sonora, Mexico. Quaternary Research 35: 400-416.

    Stuckless, J. S. et al., 1991. U and Sr isotopes in ground-water and calcite, Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Evidence against upwelling water. Science 254: 551-554.

    Winograd, 1. J. et al., 1992. Continuous 500,000-year record from vein calcite in Devil's Hole, Nevada. Science 258: 255-260.

PALEOMAGNETIC TIME SCALE



ASSIGNED READING

Eighmy, J.L., R.S. Sternberg, and R.F. Butler. 1980. Archaeomagnetic dating in the American Southwest. American Antiq. 45:507-517.

and see:
R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 4.1

OTHER REFERENCES

Bercovici, D., Schubert, G., Glatzmaier, G.A. 1989. Three-dimensional spherical models of convection in the Earth's mantle. Science 244:950-955.

Brandsma, D. Lund, S.P., and Henyey, T.L. 1989. Paleomagnetism of late Quaternary marine sediments from Santa Catalina Basin, California continental borderland. J. Geophys. Res. (B1) 94:547-564.

Butler, R. F. 1992. Paleomagnetism: magnetic domains to geologic terrines. Blackwell Scientific Cambridge.

Courtillot, V. and Besse, J. 1987. Magnetic field reversals, polar wander, and core-mantle coupling. Science 237:1140-1147.

Damon, P.E. and Linick, T.W. 1986. Geomagnetic-heliomagnetic modulation of atmospheric radiocarbon production. Radiocarbon 23:266-278.

Dalrymple, G.B. 1972. Potassium argon dating of geomagnetic reversals and North American glaciations. pp. 107-184 in Bishop and Miller (eds) Calibration of Hominoid Evolution. Scottish Academic Press

Eighmy, J.L., and R.S. Sternberg. 1990. Archeomagnetic dating. University of Arizona Press. 435 p.

Eighmy, J.L. 1980. Archeomagnetism: a handbook for the archaeologist. Cultural Resource Management Studies. Interagency Archeological Services Division. Office of Archeological Historic Preservation, U.S. Dept. Interior.

Hide, R and Dickey, J.O. 1991. Earth's variable rotation. Science 253:629-636. {SO-QBO}

Lund, S.P. and S.K. Banergee. 1979. Paleosecular variation from lake sediments. Rev. Geophys. & Space Phys. 17:244-249.

Morner, N.-A. 1977. The Gothenburg magnetic excursion. Quat. Res. 7:413-427.

McGuire, R.L., R.S. Sternberg, and R.F. Butler. 1980. Exchange of archaeomagnetic information between the archeologist and geophysicists. 45th Annual Meeting Society American Archaeology.

Rodgers, J.B. 1978. Archeomagnetic sampling: a procedural primer. Center Anthropological Studies, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

Stothers, R.B. 1986. Periodicity of the Earth's magnetic reversals. Nature (London) 322:444-446.

Sternberg, R.S. 1982. Archaeomagnetic secular variation of direction and paleointensity in the American Southwest. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Arizona.

Tarling, D.H. 1971. Principles and applications of paleomagnetism. Chapman and Hall, London.

Tyson, S.R. and Verosub, K.L. 1994. Thermoviscous remanenet magnetism of Columbia River basalt blocks in the Cascade landslike. Geophysical Research Letters 21: 2661-2664.

Verosub, K.L., Mehringer, P.J., Jr., and Waterstraat, P. 1986. Holocene secular variation in western North America: paleomagnetic record from Fish Lake, Harney County, Oregon. J. Geophys Res. 91:3609-3623.

Watkins, N.D. 1972. Review of the development of the geomagnetic polarity time scale and discussion of prospects for its finer definition. Bull. GSA 83:551-574.

Wollen et al., 1978. Paleoclimate, paleomagnetism, and the eccentricity of the earth's orbit. Geophys. Res. Let. 4:267-270.

Windes, T. 1978. Archaeomagnetic sampling field procedures and equipment. National Park Service, Division Chaco Research, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

LICHENOMETRY


ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 4.3

OTHER REFERENCES

Armstrong, R.A. 1983. Growth curve of the lichen Rhizocarpon geographicum. New Phytologist 94:619-622.

Benedict, J.B. 1988. Techniques in lichenometry: identifying the yellow rhizocarpons. Arctic and Alpine Research 20:285-291.

Beschel, R.E. 1957. A project to use lichens as indicators of climate and time. Arctic 10:60.

Beschel, R.E. 1961. Dating rock surfaces by lichen growth ant its application to glaciology and physiography (lichenometry). pp.1044-1062 IN Geology of the Arctic (G.O. Raasch ed.) Univ. Toronto Press.

Burrows, C.J. and Lucas, J. 1967. Variations in two New Zealand glaciers during the past 800 years. Nature 216:467-468.

Calkin, P.E. and J.M. Ellis. 1980. A lichenometric dating curve and its application to Holocene glacier studies in the central Brooks Range, Alaska. Arctic Alpine Res. 12:245-264.

Calkin, P.E. and J.M. Ellis. 1981. A cirque-glacier chronology based on emergent lichesn and mosses. J. Glaciology. 27:511-515.

Carrara, P.E. and Andrews, J.T. 1973. Problems and application of lichenometry to geomorphic studies, San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Arctic Alpine Res. 5:373-384.

Innes, J.L. 1985. Lichenometry. Progress in Physical Geography 9:187-254.

Spence, J.R. and Maheney, W.C. 1988. Growth and ecology of Rhizocarpon section Rhizocarpon on Mount Kenya, east Africa. Arctic Alpine Res. 20:237-242.

DESERT VARNISH


ASSIGNED READING

Dorn, R.I. 1987. Causes and implications of rock varnish microchemical laminations. Nature 310:767-770.

see:
R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 4.2

OTHER REFERENCES

Bierman, P.R., and Gillespie, A.R., 1994. Evidence suggesting that methods of rock-varnish cation-ratio dating are neither comparable nor consistently reliable. Quaternary Research: v. 41, p. 82-90.

Bierman, P., Gillespie, A., Harrington, C., Raymond, R., Reneau, S., McFadden, L., Sells, S. 1992. Throwing Rocks. American Scientist. 80:110-112.

Clayton, J.A., Verosub, K.L. and Harrington, C.D. 1990. Magnetic techniques applied to the study of rock varnish. Geophysical Research Letters 17: 787-790.

Dorn, R.I. 1984. Cause and implications of rock varnish microchemical laminations. Nature 310:767-770.

Dorn, R.I. and Dickinson, W.R. 1989. First paleoenvironmental interpretation of a pre-Quaternary rock-varnish site, Davidson Canyon, Southern Arizona. Geology 17:1029-1031.

Dorn, R.I. Bamforth, DB, Cahill TA, Dohrenwend JC, Terber BD, Donahue DJ, Jull ATJ, Long A, Macko ME, Weil EB, Whitley DS, Zabel TH. 1986. Cation-ratio and accelerator radiocarbon dating of rock varnish on Mojave artifacts and landform. Science 231: 830-833.

Dorn, R.I. 1987. Causes and implications of rock varnish microchemical laminations. Nature 310:767-770.

Dorn, R.I. et al. 1989. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of rock varnish. GSA Bulletin 101:1363-1372.

Dorn, R.I., and M.J. DeNiro. 1985. Stable carbon isotope ratios of rock varnish organic matter: a new paleoenvironmental indicator. Science 227:1472-1474.

Dorn, R.I. and T.M. Oberlander. 1982. Rock Varnish. Progress in Physical Geography. 6:317-367.

Hooke, R., H. Yang, and P.W. Weiblen. 1969. Desert varnish: an electron microprobe study. J. Geol. 77:275-288.

Reneau, S.L. and Raymond, R. Jr., 1991. Cation-ratio dating of rock varnish: why does it work. Geology 19:937-940.

Wickman, Frans E. 1952. Variations in the relative aboundance of carbon isotopes in plants Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta 2: 243-254.

VOLCANIC TEPHRA STUDIES



ASSIGNED READING

USGS 2003. Volcanic History of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field. Viewed online at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo/history.html Last modified March 7, 2003.

also see:
R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 4.2

OTHER REFERENCES

Buillie, M.G.L. and Munro. M.F.R. 1988. Irish tree rings, Santorini, and Volcanic dust veils. Nature 332:344-346.

Bradley, R.S. 1988. The explosive volcanic eruption signal in Northern Hemisphere continental temperature records. Clim. Change 12:221

Bryson, R.A. and Goodman, B.M. 1980. Volcanic activity and climatic changes. Science 207:1041-1044.

Gow, A.J. and Williamson, T. 1971. Volcanic ash in the Antarctic ice sheet and its possible climatic implications. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 13:210-218

Hajdas, I., Ivy, S.D., Beer, J., Bonani, G., Imboden, D., Lotter, A.F., Sturm, M. and Suter, M. 1993. AMS radiocarbon dating and varve chronology of lake Soppensee: 6000 to 12,000 14C years BP. Climate Dynamics 9:107-116. LST and varved seds Ave age 11,230±40

Hammer, C.U., Clausen, H.B. and Dansgaard., W. 1980. Greenland ice sheet evidence of post-glacial volcanism and its climatic impact. Nature (London) 288:230-235.

Keenan, D.J. 2004. Volcanic ash retrieved from the GRIP ice core is not from Thera Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems Research Letter 4(11): 8p. http://www.informath.org/G%5e303a.pdf

LaMarche, V.C. and Hirschboeck, .K.K. 1984. Frost rings in trees as records of major volcanic eruptions. Nature (London) 307:121-126.

Lynn, M., Paladio-Melosantos, L.O., Solidum, R.U., Scott, W.E., Quiambao, R.B. Umbal, J.V., Rodolfo, K.S., Tubianosa, B.S., Delos Reyes, P.J., Alonso, R.A. and Ruelo, H.B. 1992. Tephra Falls of the 1991 Eruptions of Mount Pinatubo. Viewed online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pinatubo/paladio/. Last updated June 11, 1999.

Mass, C.F. and Portman, D.A. 1989. Major volcanic eruptions and climate: A critical evaluation. J. Clim. 2:566.

Onken, J. 1991. The effect of microenvironmental temperature variation on the hydration of late Holocene Mono Craters Volcanic ashes from East-Central California. MS Thesis, Univ. Arizona, 12 pp, 7 fig.

Oviatt, C.G. and Nash, W.P. 1989. Late Pleistocene basaltic ash and volcanic eruptions in the Bonneville basin, Utah. GSA Bull. 101 292-303.

Petit, J, M. Brain and Royer, A. 1981. Ice age aerosol content from east Antarctic ice core samples and past wind strength. Nature (London) 293:391-394.

Porter, S.C. 1986. Pattern and forcing of northern hemisphere glacier variations during the last millennium. Quat. Res. 26:27-48.

Rampino, M.R., Self, S. and Fairbridge, R.W. 1979. Can rapid climatic change cause volcanic eruptions. Science 206:826-829.

Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M. et al. 1988. Tephrachronologic studies of sediment cores from Walker Lake, Nevada. USGS Open File Report 88-548.

Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M. and Davis, J.O. 1991. Quaternary tephrochronology pp. 93-116 In: Morrison RB (ed) Quaternary nonglacial geology: Conterminous U.S. GSA Geology of North America, Vol. K-2.

Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M., Meyer, C.E., Wan, E. and Soles, S. 1992. Age and Correlation of Tephra Layers in Owens Lake Drill Core OL-92-1 and -2. U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California. Viewed online at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/of93-683/5-chronology/2-tephro/tephro.html

Thompson, R., Bradshaw, R.H.W., and Whitley, J.E. 1986. The distribution of ash in Iceland lake sediments and the relative importance of mixing and erosion processes. J. Quatern. Sci. 1:3-11.

Wohlfarth B., Bjork, S., Possnert, G., Lemdahl, G., Brunnberg, L., Ising, J., Olsson, S. and Svensson, N. 1993. AMS dating of the Swedish varved clays of the last glacial/interglacial transition and the potential difficulties of calibrating late Weichselian /absolute/ chronologies. Boreas 22:113-128. Swedish time scale

GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION READINGS


ASSIGNED READING

Chen, Deliang. Global Atmospheric Circulation Chapter 6. Available online at http://www.gvc.gu.se/ngeo/deliang/14312_ch3.pdf Viewed 8/04.

OTHER REFERENCES

Haug, G.H., Hughen, K.A., Sigman, D.M., Peterson, L.C., Rohl, U. 2001. Southward migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone through the Holocene. Science 293: 1304-1308.

Gray, S. T.,Graumlich, L. J., Betancourt, J. L., and Pederson, G. T. 2004. A tree-ring based reconstruction of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation since 1567 A.D. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L12205, 4 p.


REGIONAL CLIMATE




ASSIGNED READING

Edmonds, R.L., R.C. Francis, N.J. Mantua, and D.L. Peterson. 2003. Chapter 2. Sources of climate variability in river ecosystems. pp. 11-37 IN: R.C. Wissmar and P.A. Bisson, editors. Strategies for restoring river ecosystems: sources of variability and uncertainty in natural and managed systems. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Viewed online at http://www.atmos.washington.edu/~mantua/REPORTS/RivRest_Ch2_galley.pdf Accessed 7/04.

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 2.2

OTHER REFERENCES

Bachhuber, F.W. and W.A. McClellan. 1977. Paleoecology of marine foraminifera in the pluvial Estancia Valley, central New Mexico. Quat. Res. 7:254-267.

Barnosky, C. W. 1984 Late Pleistocene and early Holocene environmental history of southwestern Washington State, U.S.A. Canadian J. Earth Science. 21:619-629.

Barry, R.G, and Chorley, R.J. 1976. Atmosphere, Weather and Climate (fourth edition). Methuen, New York.

Batchelder, G.L. 1970. Post-glacial fluctuations of lake level in Adobe valley, Mono County, California. First Meeting. AMQUA Abstr. p. 7

Bryson, R.A. 1985. On climate analogs and paleoclimate reconstructions. Quaternary Research 23: 275-286.

Cayan, D.R. 1996. Interannual climatic variability and snowpack in the Western United States. Journal of Climate 9: 293-248.

Clague, J.J. and Mathewes, R.W. 1989. Early Holocene thermal maximum in western North America: New evidence from Castle Peak, British Columbia. Geology 17:277-280.

Clapperton, 1993. The nature of environmental changes in South America at the Last Glacial Maximum Paleo Paleo Paleo 101:189-208.

CLIMAP Project Members. 1976. The surface of the ice-age Earth. Science 191: 1131-1138. [link]

COHMAP Members 1988. Climate changes of the last 18,000 years: observations and model simulations. Science 271:1043-1052. [link]

Davis, O.K. 1987. Regionalization of climatic change in western North America. NATO Advanced Research Workshop November 15-19, Oracle, Arizona.

Davis, O.K., Agenbroad, L.D., Martin, P.S., and Mead, J.I. 1984. The Pleistocene dung blanket of Bechan Cave, Utah. IN: Genoways, H.H. and Dawson M.R. (Eds.) Contributions in Quaternary Vertebrate Paleontology: A volume in memorial of John E. Guilday., Carnegie Museum of Natural History Special Publication 8:267-282.

Davis, O.K., Sheppard, J.C., and Robertson, S. 1986. Contrasting climatic histories for the Snake River Plain resulting from multiple thermal maxima. Quaternary Research 26:321-339.

Foley, J.A., Kutzbach, J.E., Coe M.T., and Levis. S. 1994. Feedbacks between climate and boreal forests during the Holocene epoch. Nature 371:52-54.

Graham, N.E. 2004. Late-Holocene teleconnections between tropical Pacific climate variability and precipitation in the western USA: evidence from proxy records. Holocene 14: 486-477.

Haynes, C.V. 1975. Pleistocene and recent stratigraphy pp. 57-290 IN: Wendorf F. and Hester, J.J. (Eds.) Late Pleistocene environments of the southern high plains. Fort Burgwin Research Center Publ. 9

Hebda, R.J. and Mathewes, R.W. 1984. Holocene history of cedar and native Indian cultures of the North American Pacific coast. Science 225: 711-712.

Holliday, V.T. 1985. New data on the stratigraphy and pedology of the Clovis and Plainview sites, southern high plains. Quat. Res. 23:388-402.

Houghton, Sakamoto, Gifford. 1975. Nevada's weather and climate. NBMG SP2.

Imbrie, J., McIntyre, A., and Moore, T.C., Jr. 1983. The ocean around North America at the last glacial maximum. pp. 230 - 236 IN: Late Quaternary Environments of the United States, Vol. 1, S.C. Porter, editor.

Leathers, D.J., Yarnal, B., and Palecki, M.A. 1991. The Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern and United States Climate. Part I: Regional temperature and precipitation patterns. Journal of Climate 4: 517-528.

Leathers, D.J., Yarnal, B., and Palecki, M.A. 1992. The Pacific/North American teleconnection pattern and United States Climate. Part II: Temporal characteristics and index specification. Journal of Climate 5: 707-716.

Licciardi, J.M. 2001. Viewed October, 2004. Chronology of latest Pleistocene lake-level fluctuations in the pluvial Lake Chewaucan basin, Oregon, USA. Journal Quaternary Science 16(6): 545–553. Viewed online at http://www.unh.edu/esci/licciardi_2001_jqs.pdf October, 2004. [+]

Mantua, N.J., Hare, S.R., Zhang, Y., Wallace, J.M., and Francis, R.C. 1997. A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bulletin of the American mMeteorological Society 78: 1069-1079.

Mark, B.G., Harrison, S.P., Spessa, A., New, M., Evans, D.J.A. and Helmens. K.F. 2005. Tropical snowline changes at the last glacial maximum: A global assessment Quaternary International 138-139: 168-201.

Markgraf, V. et al. 1984. San Agustin Plains, New Mexico: Age and paleoenvironmental potential reassessed. Quaternary Research 22: 336-343.

Mitchell, V.L. 1976. The regionalization of climate in the western United States. J. Applied Meteorology 15:920-927.

Moy, C.M., Seltzer, G.O., Rodbell, D.T. and Anderson, D.M. 2002. Variability of El Nińo/Southern Oscillation activity at millennial timescales during th Holocene epoch. Nature 420: 162-165.

Ore, H.T. and Warren, C.N. 1971. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 81:2553-

Oviatt, C.G. 1988. Late Pleistocene and Holocene lake fluctuations in the Sevier Lake Basin, Utah, USA. J. Palaeolimn 1:9-21.

Pyke, C.B. 1972. Some meterological aspects of the seasonal distribution of precipitation in the western United States and Baja California. UCLA Univ. Calif. Water Res. Center Contrib. 139.

Rind, D. and Peteet, D. 1985. Terrestrial conditions at the last glacial maximam and CLIMAP sea-surface temperature estimates: are they consistent? Quaternary Research. 24: 1-22.

Sheppard, P.S., Comrie, A.C., Packin, G.D., Angersbach, K. and Hughes, M.K. 2002. The climate of the US Southwest. Climate Research 21: 219–238.

Smith, G.I. and F.A. Street-Perrott. 1983. Pluvial lakes of the western United States. pp. 190-212. IN: Porter S.C. and Wright, H.E.(Eds.) Late Quaternary Environments of the United States. Univ. Minn. Press, Minneapolis.

Spaulding, W.G. and Graumlich, L.J. 1986. The last pluvial climatic episodes in the deserts of the southwestern North America. Nature 320: 441-444.

Street, F.A. and Grove. A.T. 1979. Global maps of lake-level fluctuations since 30,000 yr B..P. Quaternary Research 12:83-118.

Stiute M, Forster, M, Frischkorn, H, Serejo, A, Clark JF, Scholsser P, Broecked, WS and Bonani, G. 1995. Cooling of tropical Brazil (5°C) during the last glacial maximum. Science 269: 379-383.

Thompson, LG Mosley-Thompson E, Davis, ME, Lin, P.-N, Henderson KA, Cole-Dai J, Bolzan JF , Liu., K-B. 1995. Late glacial stage and Holocene tropical ice core records from Huascaran, Peru. Science 269: 46-50.

Thompson, R.S., L. Benson, and E.M. Hattori. 1986. A revised chronology for the last Pleistocene lake cycle in the central Lahontan Basin. Quaternary Research 25:1-9.

Webb, R.S., Rind, D.H., Lehman, S.J., Healy, R.J., and Sigman, D. 1997. Influence of ocean heat transport on the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum Nature 385: 695-699.

Whitlock C and Bartlein, P.J. 1993. Spatial variations of Holocene climatic change in the Yellowstone region. Quaternary Research 39:231-238.

Zielinski, G.A. and McCoy, W.D. 1987. Paleoclimatic implications of the relationship between modern snowpack and late Pleistocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the mountains of the Great Basin, western U.S.A. Arctic Alpine Research 19:127-134.


PALEOCLIMATE




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 12

OTHER REFERENCES

Allen, J., Hoskins,R. L., Sellwood, B. J., Spicer, B. W., and Valdes, R. A. 1994. Palaeoclimates and their Modelling - With special reference to the Mesozoic Era. London, Chapman & Hall.

Barnola, J.M., Raynaud, D., Korotkevich, T.S. and Loris, C. 1987. Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 329: 408-413.

Chess R.D., et al. 1989. Interpretation of cloud-climate feedbaack as produced by 14 atmospheric general circulation models. Science 245: 513-519.

Damon, P.E. and Linick. T.W. 1986. Geomagnetic-Heliomagnetic modulation of atmospheric radiocarbon production. Radiocarbon 28: 266-278.

Dickinson, R.E., Errico, R.M., Giorgi, F., and Bates, G.T. 1989. A regional climate model for the western United States. Climate Change 15:383-422.

Davis, O.K., Sheppard, J.C. and Robertson, S. 1986. Contrasting climatic histories for the Snake River Plain result from multiple thermal maxima. Quaternary Res. 26:321-339.

Flügel, E., and Flügel-Kahler, E. 1992. Phanerozoic reef evolution: Basic questions and data base. Facies 26: 167-278.

Frakes, J. I., Francis, L. A., and Syktus, J. E. 1992. Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic: the history of the earth's climate over the past 600 million years. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Gallimore RG and Kutzbach JE 1991. Role of orbitally induced changes in tundra area in the onset of glaciation. Nature 381: 503-505.

Glance, T.J., Jr., Barron, E.J., and Arthur, M.A., 1986. An initial study of the sensitivity of modeled cretaceous climate to cyclical insolation forcing. Paleoceanography 1: 523-537.

Jones, P.D. 1988. The influence of ENSO on global temperataures. Climate Monitor 17:80-89.

Kutzbach, J.E. 1981. Monsoon climate of the early Holocene: climatic experiment with the Earth's orbital parameters for 9000 years ago. Science 214:59-61.

Kutzbach, J.E. and Guetter, P.J. 1986. The influence of changing orbital parameters and surface boundary conditions on climate simulations for the past 18,000 years. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 43:1726-1759.

Kutzbach, J.E. and Wright, H.E., Jr. 1985. Simulation of the climate of 18,000 years BP: results for the North American/North Atlantic?European sector and comparison with the geologic record of North America. Quaternary Science Reviews 4:147-187.

Martinson, D.G., Pisias, N.G., Hays, J.D., Imbrie, J., Moore, T.C., Jr., and Shackleton, N.J. 1987. Age dating and the orbital theory of the ice ages: Development of a high-resolution 0 - 300,000 year chronostratigraphy. Quaternary Research 27:1-29.

Mix, A.C. 1987. The oxygen-isotope record of glaciation. IN: Ruddiman, W.F. and Wright, H.E., Jr. (Eds.), North America and adjacent oceans during the last deglaciation. Geol. Soc. Amer, Geology of North America, Vol. K-3.

Prothero, D. R. and Berggren, W. A. 1992. Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

Sanders, J.E. and R.W. Fairbridge. 1987. Selected bibliography on sun-earth relationships and cycles having periods of less than 10,000 years. p 475-541 in M.R. Rampino et al. (eds.) Climate History, Periodicity and Predictability. Van Nostrand Reinh. Co., NY.

Schwartz SE, and Andrean MO. 1996. Uncertainty in climate change caused by aerosols. Science 272: 1121-1122,

Schlenger, M.E. and J.F.B. Mitchell. 1985. model projections of the equilibrium climatic response to increased car on dioxide. Chapter Four IN "The potential of climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide." DOE/ER-0237.

Sellers, W.D. 1983. A quasi-three-dimensional climate model. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology 22:1557-1574.

Sellers, W.D. 1984. The response of a climate model to orbital variations. IN: Berger A. et al. (Eds.) Milankovitch and Climate Understanding the Response to Astronomical Forcing. D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland. pp. 765-788

Thompson, LG. and Mosley-Thompson, E. 1981. Microparticle concentration variations linked with climatic change: evidence from polar ice cores. Science 212: 812-815.

Vakhrameev, V. A. 1991. Jurassic and Cretaceous floras and climates of the Earth. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Webb RS, Rind DH, Lehman SJ Healy RJ Simgan D. 1997. Influence of ocean heat transport on the climate of the last glacial maximum. Nature 385: 695-699.


GEOLOGICAL - GEOPHYSICAL MECHANISMS




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary. (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 2

REFERENCES

Berner, R.A., Lasaga, A.C. and Garrels, R.M. 1983. The carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle and its effect on atmospheric carbon dioxide over the past 100 million years. Amer. J. Sci. 283:641-683.

Brandt D.S., and Elias, R.J. 1989. Temporal variations in tempestite thickness may be a geological record of atmospheric CO2. Geology 17:951-952.

Cain, M.A. and Molnar, P. 2001. Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to east African aridification around 3-4 million years ago. Nature 411: 157-162.

Crowell, J.C. and L.A. Frakes. 1970. Phanerozoic glaciation and the causes of ice ages. Amer. J. Sci. 268:193-224

Crowley, T.J., D.A. Short, J.G. Mengel, G.R. North. 1986. The role of seasonality in the evolution of climate during the last 100 million years. Science 231:579-584.

Eddy, J.A. 1977. Climate and the Changing Sun. Climate Change 1:173-190.

Endal, A. and Schatten. K 1982. The faint young sun - climate paradox: continental influences. J. Geophys. Res. 87:7295-7302.

Huber, N.K. 1981. Amount and timing of late Cenozoic uplift and tilt of the central Sierra Nevada, California: Evidence from the upper San Joaquin River basin. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1197. Washington, DC.

Karhu J and Epstein, S. 1986. The implication of the oxygen isotope records in coexisting cherts and phosphates.Geochemica et Cosmochemica Acta. 50: 1745-1756.

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Kutzbach, J.E. Press, W.L. and Ruddiman, W.F. 1993. Sensitivity of Eurasian climate to surface uplift of the Tibetan Plateau Jour. Geol. 101: 177-190.

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Powell, C.M. and J.J. Veevers. Namurian uplift in Australia and South America triggered the main Gondwanan glaciation. Nature 326:177-179.

Sahagian, D.L., Proussevitch, A.A. and Carlson, W.D. 2002. Timing of Colorado Plateau uplift: Initial constraints from vesicular basalt-derived paleoelevations. Geology 30: 807-810.

Tarling, D.H. 1978. The geological-geophysical framework of ice ages. In Gribbin, J. (ed.) Climatic Change, Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 3-24.

Wernicke B, Clayton R, Ducea M, Jones CH, Park S, Ruppert S, Salecby J, Show KJ, Squires L, Fledren M, Jiracek G, Keller R, Klemperer S, Luetgert J, Malin P, Muller K, Mooney W, Oliver H, Phenney P. 1996. Origin of high mountians in the continents: The southern Sierra Nevada. Science 271: 190-193.

Wolf, J.A. and Leopold, E.B., 1967. Neogene and early Quaternary vegetation of northwestern North America and northeastern Asia pp. 193-206 IN: Hopkins, D.M. (Ed.) The Bering Land Bridge, Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif.

Worsley, T.R., R.D. Nance, and J.B. Moody. 1986. Tectonic cycles and the history of the Earth's biogeochemical and paleooceanographic record. Paleoceanography 1:233-263.


SOLAR VARIABILITY




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 2

OTHER REFERENCES

Beer, J., Mende, W. and Stellmacher, R. 2000. The role of the sun in climate forcing. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 403-415.

Beer, J., Siegenthaler, U., Bonani, G., Finkel, R.C., Oeschger, H., Suter, M., and Wolfli, W. 1988. Information on past solar activity and geomagnetism from 10Be in the Camp Century ice core. Nature 331: 675-679.

Blackford, J. J. and Chambers, F. M. 1995. Proxy climate record for the last 1000 years from Irish blanket peat and a possible link to solar variabiity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 133: 145-150.

Blizard, J.B. 1987. Long-range prediction of solar activity. p. 415-420 in M.R. Rampino et al. (eds.) Climate History, Periodicity and Predictability. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., NY.

Crowley, T. J. 2000. Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science 289: 270-277. [ref]

Damon, P.E. and Sonett, C.P. 1989. Solar and terrestrial components of the atmospheric 14C variation spectrum. in: The Sun in Time, C.P. Sonnett (Ed.) Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Davis, O.K. 1994. The correlation of summer precipitation in the southwestern U.S.A. with isotopic records of solar activity during the Medieval warm period. Climate Change 26: 271-287.

Davis, O.K., Jirikowic, J.L., and Kalin, R.M., 1992. The Radiocarbon record of solar variability and Holocene climatic change in coastal southern California. Proceedings 8th PACLILM Workshop, Calif. Dept. Water Res. Ecol. Stud. Progr. Techn. Rep. 31: 19-33

Dilke, F.W.W. and D.O. Gough. 1972. The solar spoon. Nature 240: 262-264, 293-294.

Eddy, J.A. 1976. The Maunder Minimum. Science 192:1189-1202

Eddy, J.A. 1977. Climate and the changing sun. Climatic Change 1: 173-190.

Friis-Christensen, E. and Lassen, K. 1991. Length of the solar cycle: an indicator of sloar activity closely associated with climate. Science 254: 698-700

Gellatly, A.F. Rothlisberger, F. And Geyh. M.A. 1985 Holocene glacier variations in New Zealand (South Island). Zeitschrift fur Gletscherkunde und glazialgeologie 21: 265-73.

Graumlich, L.J. 1993. A 1000-year record of temperature and precipitation in the Sierra Nevada. Quaternary Research 39: 249-255.

Grove, J.M. 1988. The Little Ice Age.i> Methuen, London, 498 p.

Haigh, J.D. 1996. The impact of solar variability on climate Science 272: 981-984. [ref]

Hodel, D.A., Brenner, M, Curtis, JH, Guilderson, T. 2001. Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands. Science 292: 1367-1370.

Holzhauser, H. 1982. Neuzeitliche Gletscherschwankungen. Geographic Helvetica 37: 115-126.

Hu, F.S., Kaufman, D., Yoneji, S., Nelson, D., Semesh, A., Huang, Y., TIan, J., Bond, G., Clegg, B., Brown, T. 2003. Cyclic variation and solar forcing of Holocene Climate in the Alaskan Subarctic. Science 301: 1890-1893.

Kasting, J.F., and Greinspoon, D.H. 1991. The faint oung sun problem. pp. 447-462 in: C.P. Sonnett, M.S. Giampapa, and M.S. Matthews. The Sun in Time, Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Kromer, B., Claussen, M. Latuske, N. Lüken, M. Remmele, S. and Schleser, G. 2004. Solar Variability and Holocene Climate: Evidence from Radiocarbon, Tree-Ring Proxies and Climate System Modeling. PAGES 12 (2) 13-15. Viewed online October, 2004 at http://130.92.227.10/products/newsletters/NL2004_2a.pdf

Labitzke, K., and van Loon, H. 1988. Associations between the 11-year solar cycle, the QBO, and the atmosphere, part I: The troposphere and stratosphere in the northern hemisphere in winter. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 50: 197-206

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ASTRONOMICAL THEORY




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 2

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ATMOSPHERIC CHANGE




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 2

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AEROSOLS AND VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS




ASSIGNED READING

Shipley, S., and Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M. 1983. Distribution, thickness and mass of late Pleistocene and Holocene tephra from major volcanoes in the northwestern United States: A preliminary assessment of hazards from volcanic ejecta to noclear reactors in the Pacific Northwest. USGS Report and MAP MF-1435. Also See:
R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 2



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Bryson, R.A. and B.M. Goodman. 1980. Volcanic activity and climatic changes. Science 207:1041-1044.

Bradley, R.S. and Jones, P.D. 1992. Climate Since A.D. 1500. Routledge, New York, 679 p.

Dawson, A.G., Hickey, K., McKenna, J., and Foster, I.D.L. 1997. A 200-year record of gale frequency, Edinburgh, Scotland: possible link with high-magnitude volcanic eruptions. Holocene 7: 337-342.

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CAVES, LAKES, and MARSHES




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 7.7

Wetzel, R.G. 1983. Limnology, (2nd Ed.) Historical records of productivity: Paleolimnology. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 741 p.

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Gorham, E. and Sanger, J.E., 1972. Fossil pigments in the surface sediments of a meromictic lake. Limnology and Oceanography 17: 618-622.

Leopold, E.B., R. Nickmann, J.I. Hedges, and J.R. Ertel. 1982. Pollen and lignin records of late Quaternary vegetation, Lake Washington. Science 218:1305-1307

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Sanger, J.E. and E. Gorham. 1972. Stratigraphy of fossil pigments as a guide to the postglacial history of Kirchner Marsh, Minnesota. Limnology and Oceanography 17:840-854.



CAVE STUDIES




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 7.8

Davis, O.K. 1990. Caves as sources of biotic remains in arid Western North America. IN: Davis, O.K. (Ed.), Paleoenvironments of Arid Regions. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 76:331-348.

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Bischoff, J.L., Rosenbauer, R.J., and Smith, G.I. 1985. Uranium-series dating of sediment from Searles Lake: Differences between continental and marine climatic records. Science 227:1222-1224.

Baldini, J.U.L., McDermott, F., Fairchild, I.J. 2002. Structure of the 8200-year cold event revealed by a speleothem trace element record. Science 296: 2203-2206.

Brook, G.A., Burney, D.A., and Cowart, J.B. 1989. Desert paleoenvironmental data from cave speleothems with examples from the Chihuahuan, Somali-Chalbi, and Kalahari deserts. Davis, O.K. (ed.) Desert Paleoenvironments Palaeo3.

Byrne, R.C., Busby, C., and Heizer, R.F. 1979. The altithermal revisited: two pollen diagrams from Leonard Rockshelter. Journal of California and Great Basin Anthropology 1:280-299.

Davis, O.K., Sheppard, J.C., and Robertson, S. 1986 Contrasting climatic histories for the Snake River Plain resulting from multiple thermal maxima. Quaternary Research 26:321-339.

Davis O.K. 1990. Caves as sources of biotic remains in arid Western North America. In: Davis, O.K. (Editor), Paleoenvironments of Arid Regions. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 76:331-348.

Euler, R.C. 1984. The archaeology, geology and paleobiology of Stanton's Cave, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. Grand Canyon Natural History Association 6.

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Grayson, D. K., Madsen, D.B. 2000. Biogeographic implications of recent low-elevation recolonization by Neotoma cinerea in the Great Basin. Journal of Mammalogy 81: 1100-1105. Viewed online at [ http://www.bioone.org/pdfserv/i0022-2372-081-04-1100.pdf November 2, 2004. [cls]

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Harmon, R.S., H.P. Schwarcz, and D.C. Ford. 1978. Late Pleistocene sea level history of Bermuda. Quat. Res 9:205-218.

Harmon, R.S. and Curl, R.L. 1978. Preliminary results on growth rate and paleoclimate studies of a stalagmite from Ogle Cave, New Mexico. Natl. Speleol. Soc. Bull. 40:25-26.

Haynes, C.V. and Agogino, G.A. 1986. Geochronology of Sandia Cave. Smithsonian Contrib. Anthrop. 32

Haurey, E.W. 1975. The stratigraphy and archeology of Ventana Cave. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson 599 p.

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Schmidt, V.A. 1982. Magtnetostratigraphy of sediments in Mammoth Cave, Kentucky. Science 217:827-829.

Sears, P.B. and Roosma, A. 1961. A climatic sequence for two Nevada caves. American Journal of Science 259: 669-678.

Smart, P.L. et al. 1988. An intercomparison of ESR and uranium series agesfor Quaternary speleothem calcites. Quaternary Science reviews 7:411-416.

Smith, G.I., 1984. Paleohydrologic regimes in the southwestern Great Basin, 0-3.2 myr ago, compared with other long records of "global" climate. Quaternary Research 22: 1-17.

Stein-Erik, L. and Lundbert, J. 1999. Speleotherms as high-resolution paleoclimatic archives. The Holocene 9(6):643-728.

Szabo, B.J. 1990. Ages of travaertine deposits in eastern Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. Quaternary Research 34:24-32.

Wigand, P.E. and Mehringer, P.J., Jr. 1985. Chapter 9. Pollen and seed analyses. pp. 108-124 in Thomas, D.H. (Ed.) The archaeology of Hidden Cave, Nevada. Amer. Mus. Natural History Anthropol. Papers 61.

Winograd, I.J., Szabo, B.J., Coplen, T.B. and Riggs, A.C. 1988. A 250,000-year climatic record from Great Basin vein calcite: Implications for Milankovitch theory. Science 242: 1275-1280.


PALYNOLOGY READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: reconstructing climates of the Quaternary (2nd Ed.) Academic Press. Chapter 9

OTHER REFERENCES

Birks, H.J.B. andGordon, A.D. 1985. Numerical methods in Quaternary pollen analysis. Academic Press, London. 317 p.

Bonny, A.P. 1976. Recruitment of pollen to the seston and sediment of some English Lake District lakes. Jour. Ecol. 64:859-857.

Bright, R.C. 1981. Pollen in high-mountain snow, western United States. Striae: 14:55-57.

Cross, A.T., Thompson, G.G., and Zaitzeff. J.B. 1966. Source and distribution of palynomorphs in bottom sediments, southern part of Gulf of California. Marine Geology 4:467-524.

Cushing, E.J. 1964. Redeposited pollen in late-Wisconsin pollen spectra from east-central Minnesota. Amer. J. Sci. 262:1075-1088.

Davis, M.B. 1963. On the theory of pollen analysis. Amer. J. Sci. 261:897-912.

Davis, M.B. 1968. Pollen grains in lake sediments: redeposition caused by seasonal water circulation. Science 162: 796-799.

Davis, M.B. and Brubaker, L.B. 1973. Differential sedimentation of pollen grains in lakes. Limnology and Oceanography 18:635-645.

Davis, M.B. Brubaker, L.B. and Beiswenger, J.M. 1971. Pollen grains in lake sediments: pollen percentages in surface sediments from southern Michigan. Quaternary Research 1:450-467.

Davis, M.B. and Ford, M.S. 1982. Sediment focusing in Mirror Lake, New Hampshire. Limnology and Oceanography 27:137-150.

Fagerlind, F. 1952. The real signification of pollen diagrams. Bot. Not. 105:185-224.

Firbas, F. 1931. Uber die bestimmung der walddichte und der vegetation waldloser giviete mit hilfe der pollenanalyse. Planta 22:109-146.

Fall, P.L. 1981. Modern pollen spectra and their application to alluvial pollen sedimentology. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Arizona, 63 p.

Havinga, A.J. 1974. An experimental investigation into the decay of pollen and spores in various soil types. pp. 446-479 in J. Brooks et al., eds, Sporopollenin Academic Press

Markgraf, V. 1980. Pollen dispersal in a mountain area. Grana 19:127-146.

Muller, J. 1959. Palynology of recent Orinoco delta and shelf sediments. Micropaleontology 5:1-32.

O'Rourke, M.K. 1986. The implications of atmospheric pollen rain for fossil pollen profiles in the arid Southwest. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Arizona.

O'Rourke, M.K. 1990. Comparative pollen calenders from Tucson, Arizona, Durham vs. Burkhardt samplers. Aerobiologia. 1990 136-140

Prentice, I.C., and T. Webb III. 1986. Pollen percentages, tree abundances and the Fagerlind effect. J. Quaternary Sci 1:35-43.

Sangster and Dale. 1961. Pollen preservation. Can. J. Bot Vol. 39

Scott, L. and S.K. Srivastava. (in press) Reworked Cretaceous palynomorphs in late quaternary deposits from central Colorado, U.S.A. Pollen et Spores.

Schulte, L., Juliŕ, R. and Rosell-Melé. A. 2004. The Catalan Network of Palaeoclimatology (Palaeocat). PAGES 12 (2) 5-6. Viewed online October, 2004 at http://130.92.227.10/products/newsletters/NL2004_2a.pdf

Solomon, A.M. and Hayes, H.D. 1980. Impacts of urban development upon allergenic pollen in a desert city. J. Arid Environments 3:169-178.

Solomon, A.M. and Silkworth, A.B. 1986. Spatial patterns of atmospheric pollen transport in a mountain region. Quaternary Res. 25:150-162.

Traverse, A., and R.N. Ginsburg. 1966. Palynology of the surface sediments of Great Bahama Bank, as related to water movement and sedimentation. Marine Geol. 4:417-459.

Webb, T., III, et al. 1981. Estimating plant abundances from pollen percentages: The use of regression analysis. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 34:269-300.

Wright, H.E. 1967. The use of surface samples in Quaternary pollen analysis. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 2:321-330.

Wright, J.W. 1952. Pollen dispersion of some forest trees. Northeastern Forest Exp. Sta. Pap. 46 42 p.


PLANT MACROFOSSILS




ASSIGNED READING

Birks, H.H. 1980. Plant macrofossils in Quaternary lake sediments. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beig. 15:1-60.

OTHER REFERENCES

Davis, O.K., J.C. Sheppard, and S. Robertson. 1986. Contrasting climatic histories for the Snake River Plain, Idaho, resulting from multiple thermal maxima. Quaternary Research 26:

Durrell, L.W. 1916. Notes on some North American conifers based on leaf characters. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 25:519-582.

Harlow, W.M. 1931 The identification of the pines of the United States, native and introduced, by needle structure Ny State College of Forestry, Syracuse University Tec. Pub. No. 32 (Bull. Vol. XX, No. 2) 19p.

Harlow, W. M. 1959. Fruit key and twig key to trees and shrubs. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 106 pp.

Martin, A.C. and W.D. Barkley. 1961 Seed identification manual. Univ. Calif. Press, Berkley. 221 p.

Panshin, A.J. and C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of wood technology. McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York. 7722 p.

Van De Water, p.K., Leavitt, S.W. & Betancourt, J.L. 1994. Trends in stomatal density and 13C/12C ratios of Pinus flexilis needles during the last glacial/ interglacial cyl.e. Science 264:239-243.

Watts, W.A. and R.C. Bright. 1968. Pollen, seed, and mollusk analysis of a sediment core from Pickerel Lake, northeastern South Dakota. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 79:855-876.

Watts, W.A. and T.C. Winter. 1966. Plant macrofossils from Kirchner Marsh, Minnesota - a paleoecology study. Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer. 77:1339-1360.

Wells,P.V. 1976. Macrofossil analysis of woodrat (Neotoma) middens as a key to the Quaternary vegetational history of arid North America. Quat. Res. 6:223-248.

West, R.G. 1957. Interglacial deposits at Bobbitshole, Ipswich. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 241:229-246)

Winter, T.C. and Wright, H.E. 1977. Paleohydrologic phenomena recorded by lake sediments. EOS 58:188-196.

Wright, H.E., Jr., Winter, T.C., and Patten, H.L. 1963. Two pollen diagrams from southeastern Minnesota: Problems in the regional late-glacial and postglacial vegetational history. GSA Bull. 74: 1371-1396.


PACKRAT




ASSIGNED READING

Spaulding, W.G., Betancourt, J.L., Croft, L.K. and Cole, K.L. 1990. Packrat Middens: Their composition and methods of analysis. Chapter 5 in Packrat Middens, the last 40,000 years of Biotic Change. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.

OTHER REFERENCES

Allen, V. Head, L., Medlin G. and Witter, D. 2000. Palaeo-ecology of the Gap and Coturaundee Ranges, western New South Wales, using stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) (Muridae) middens. Austral Ecology 25: 333-343.

Betancourt, J.L. Van Devender, T.R., and Martin, P.S. 1990. Packrat Middens, the last 40,000 years of Biotic Change. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson.

Betancourt, J.L. Van Devender, T.R., and Martin, P.S. 1986. Comparison of plant macrofossils in woodrat (Neotoma sp.) and porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) middents from the western United States. Journal Mammalogy 67: 266-273.

Boyd W.E. 1990. Quaternary pollen analysis in the arid zone of Australia: Dalhousie Springs, Central Australia. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 64, 331 41.

Brook, G.A., Gil-Romera, G., Marais, E. and Scott, L. 2007. Late Holocene environmental change in the northwestern Namib Desert margin: New fossil pollen evidence from hyrax middens. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 24: 1-17.

Carrion, J.S., Scott, L., Vogel, J.C. 1999. Twentieth century changes in montane vegetation in the eastern Free State, South Africa, derived from palynology of hyrax dung middens. Journal of Quaternary Science 14(1): 1-16.

Cole, K.L. 1982. Late Quaternary zonation of vegetation in the eastern Grand Canyon. Science 217:1142-1145.

Davis O.K. 1990. Caves as sources of biotic remains in arid Western North America. In: Davis, O.K. (Ed.), Paleoenvironments of Arid Regions. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 76:331-348.

Davis, O.K. and R.S. Anderson. 1987. Pollen analysis of packrat middens: accuracy, precision, and pollen transport. Palynology 11:185-198. [pdf]

Elias, S.A. 2007. Plant macrofossil methods and studies | rodent middens. In: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science. Elsevier, B.V., pp. 2356-2367. Royal Holloway, University of London, Surrey, UK.

Green N., Caldwell J., Hope J., Luly J. 1983. Pollen from an 1800 year old stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) midden from Gnalta, western New South Wales. Quaternary Australasia 1: 31-41.

Head L., McCarthy L., Quade J., Witter D., Allen V., Lawson E. \1998. Classification and radiocarbon dating of Leporillus nests in semi-arid Australia and palaeoclimatic implications. Palaeoclimates 3: 161-177.

Holmgren, C.A., Betancourt, J.L. and Rylander, K.A. 2006. A 36,000-yr vegetation history from the Peloncillo Mountains, southeastern Arizona, USA. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 240: 405-422.

Hunter, K.L. and McAuliffe, J.R. 1994. Elevational shifts of Coleogyne ramossissima in the Mojave desert during the Little Ice Age. Quaternary Research 42: 216-221.

Jennings, S.A. and Elliot-Fisk, D.L. 1993. Packrat midden evidence of late Quaternary vegetation change in the White Mountains, California - Nevada. Quaternary Research 39: 214-221.

McCarthy L. 1996. Stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens from the Flinders Ranges, South Australia: do they stand the test of time? Ninth International Palynological Congress Abstract p. 101., Houston, Texas.

McCarthy L. 1999. A Holocene vegetation history of the Flinders Ranges South Australia: evidence from Leporillus spp. (Stick-nest rat) middens. PhD Thesis, School of Geosciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong.

McCarthy L., Head L., Quade J. 1996. Holocene palaeoecology of the northern Flinders Ranges, South Australia, based on stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens: a preliminary overview. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 123: 205-218.

McAuliffe, J. R. aand Van Devender, T.R. 1998. A 22,000 year rocord of vegetation change in the north-central Sonoran Desert. Paleogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 141: 253-275.

Mehringer, P.J.,Jr. and Ferguson C.W. 1969. Pluvial Occurrence of Bristlecone Pine (Pinus aristata) in a Mohave Desert Mountain Range. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science 5(4):284-292.

Pendall, E., Betancourt, J.L. and Leavitt, S.W. 1999. Paleoclimatic significance of δD and δ13C values in pinon pine needles from packrat middens spanning the last 40,000 years. Paleogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 147: 53-72.

Pearson, S. and Dodson, J.R. 1993. Stick-nest rat middens as sources of paleoecological data in Australian deserts. Quaternary Research 29: 347 - 354.

Reiss, R. A. 2006. Ancient DNA from ice age insects: proceed with caution. Quaternary Science Reviews 25(15-16): 1877-1893.

Ritchie, J.C. 1995. Tansley Review no. 83. Current trends in studies of long-term plant community dynamics. New Phytologist 130: 469-494.

Scott, L. 1994. Palynology of late Pleistocene hyrax middens, southwestern Cape Province, South Africa: a preliminary report. Historical Biology 9: 71-81.

Scott, L. 1996. Palynology of Hyrax middens: 2000 years of palaeoenvironmental history in Namibia. Quaternary International 33:73-79.

Scott, L., Bousman, C.B. 1990. Palynological analysis of Hyrax middens from Southern Africa. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 76: 367-379.

Scott, L., Vogel, J.C. 1992. Short-term changes of climat and vegetation revealed by pollen analysis of Hyrax dung in South Africa. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 74: 283-291.

Smith, F.A., Betancourt, J.L. and Brown, J.H. 1995. Evolution of body size in the woodrat over the past 25,000 years of climate change. Science 270: 2012-2014.

Spaulding, W.G. and Graumlich, L.J. 1986. The last pluvial climatic episodes in the deserts of the southwestern North America. Nature 320: 441-444.

Van Devender, T.R., Burgess, T.L., Pipir, J.C., and Turner, R.M. 1994. Paleoclimatic implications of Holocene plant remains from the Sierra Bacha, Sonora, Mexico. Quaternary Research 41: 99-108.

Thompson, R.S. 1985. Palynology and Neotoma middens. American Assoc. Stratigr. Palyn. Contrib. Series 16: 89-112.

Van Devender, T.R. 1985. Climatic cadences and the composition of Chihuahuan desert communities: the late Pleistocene packrat midden record. pp. 285-299 ) IN: Diamond, J. and Case, T.J. (Eds.). Community Ecology. Harper & Row, New York.

van de Water P.K., Leavitt S.W., Betancourt, J.L. 1994. Trends in stomatal density and 13C/ 12C ratios of Pinus flexilis needles during last glacial-interglacial cycle. Science 264: 239-243.

Van Devender, T.R. et al. 1985. Fossil packrat middens and the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer. Nature 317: 610-613.

Webb, R.H. 1986. Spatial and temporal distribution of radiocarbon ages on rodent middens from the southwestern United States. Radiocarbon 28: 1-8.

Webb, R.H. and Betancourt, J.L. 1990. The spacial and temporal distribution of readiocarbon ages from packrat middens. pp. 85-103 in: J.L. Betancourt, T.R Van Devender, and P.S. Martin, Packrat Middens, the last 40,000 years of Biotic Change. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Wells,P.V. 1976. Macrofossil analysis of woodrat (Neotoma) middens as a key to the Quaternary vegetational history of arid North America. Quaternary Res. 6:223-248.

Wells, P.V. and Jorgensen, C.P. 1964. Pleistocene woodrat middens and climatic change in the Mojave Desert: A record of juniper woodlands. Science 143:1171-1174.



CHARCOAL READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

Patterson, W.A., Edwards, K.J. and Maguire, D.J. 1987. Microscopic charcoal as a fossil indicator of fire. Quaternary Science Rev. 6:3-23.

OTHER REFERENCES

Agee, J.K. 1991. Fire history along an elevational gradient in the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon. Northwest Science 65:188-199.

Albini, F.A. 1983. Potential spotting distance from wind-driven surface fires. USDA Forest Serv. Research Paper INT-309.

Arno, S.F. and Sneck, K.M. 1977. A ethod for determining fire history in coniferous forests of the mounain west. U.S. Forest Service Gen. Techn. Report INT-42.

Burbier, J.L. Engstrom, D.F. and Mann, D>H. 1994. FIre history and tree recruitment in an uncut New England forest. Quaternay Research 42:206-215.

Carcaillet, C., Bouvier, M., Frechette, B., Larouche, A.C., Richard, P.J.H. 2001. Comparison of pollen-slide and sieving methods in lacustrine charcoal analyses for local and regional fire history. The Holocene 11: 467-476.

Clark, J.S. 1988. Stratigraphic charcoal analysis on petrographic thin sections: application to fire history in northwestern Minnesota. Quat.Res.30:81-91.

Clark, J.S. 1988. Effect of climate change on fire regimes in northwestern Minnesota. Nature 334:233-235.

Clark, J.S. 1990. Fire and climate change during the last 750 years in northwestern Minnesota. Ecol.Monogr. 60:135-169.

Clark, J. and Royall, P.D. 1996. Local and regional sediment charcoal evidence for fire regimes in presettlement north-eastern North America. Jour. Ecology 84:365-382.

Cole, K. L. and Taylor, R.S. 1985. Past and current trends of change in a dune prairie/oak savanna reconstructed through a multiple-scale history. Journal of Vegetation Science 6: 399-401.

Davis, O.K. 1994. Pollen Analysis of Borderland Cienegas, Contract Number HQ/AZ-920815-1. Report submitted to Richard P. Young, The Nature Conservancy, Arizona Field Office, 300 E. University Blvd., Suite 230, Tucson, Arizona 85704. 105 p.

Davis, O.K. 1999. Pollen Analysis of Tulare Lake, California: Great Basin - Like Vegetation in Central California. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 107: 249-257.

Davis, O.K., Anderson, R.S., Fall, P.L., O'Rourke, M.K., and Thompson, R.S. 1985. Palynological evidence for early Holocene aridity in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. Quaternary Research 24: 322-332.

Davis, O.K., Minckley, T. Moutoux, T., Jull, T. and Kalin, R. 2001. The transformation of Sonoran Desert wetlands following the historic decrease of burning. Journal of Arid Environments. 50: 393-412

Davis, O.K. Sheppard,J.C. and Robertson, S. 1986. Contrasting climatic histories for the Snake River Plain, Idaho, resulting from multiple thermal maxima. Quaternary Research 26: 321-339.

Gale, R. and Cutler, D. 2000. Plants in Archaeology - Identification manual of artefacts of plant origin from Europe and the Mediterranean, Westbury and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. pp. 11-13

Greguss, P. 1959. Holzanatomie Der Europaischer Laubholzer und Straucher, Akademiai Kiado, Budapest.

Grimm, E.C. 1983. Chronology and dynamics of vegetation change in the prairie-woodland region of southern Minnesota U.S.A. New Phytologist 93:311-350.

Heinselman, M.L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forests of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quat. Res. 3:329-382.

Heinselman, M.L. 1996. The Boundary Waters Wilderness Ecosystem. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 335 p.

Hickman, M. and Schweger, C.E. 1996. The late Quaternary paleoenvironmental history of a presently deep freshwater lake in east-central Alberta, Canada, and paleoclimate implications. Palaeo Palaeo Palaeo 123: 161-178.

Hope, G.S. 1980. Historical influences on the New Guinea flora pp. 223-248 IN P. vanRoyen, ed. Alpine flora of New Guinea VAduz: Cramer Varlag

Kay, C.E. 1994. Aboriginal overkill, the role of native Americans in structuring western ecosystems. Human Nature 5: 359-398.

Kay, C.E. 1995. Aboriginal overkill and native burning: Implications for modern ecosystem management. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 10: 121-126.

Kay, C.E. 1997. Aboriginal overkill and the biogeography of moose in western North America. Alces 33: 141-164.

Kay, C.E. 1998. Are ecosystems structdured from the top-down or bottom up: A new look at an old debate. Wildlife Society BUlletin 26: 484-498.

Larson, C.P.S. 1996. Fire and climate dynamics in the boreal forest of northern Alberta, Canada from AD 1850 - 1989. The Holocene 6:449-456.

Leney, L. and Casteel, R.W. 1975. Simplified procedure for examining charcoal specimens for identification. J. Archaeological Science 2: 153-159.

MacDonald, G.M., Larsen CPS, Szeicz, JM and Moser, KA 1991. The reconstruction of boreal forest fire history from lake sediments: a comparison of charcoal, pollen, sedimentology, and geochemical indices. Quat.Sci.Rev. 10:53-72.

Mehringer, P.J., S.F. Arno, and K.L. Petersen. 1977. Postglacial history of Lost Trail Pass Bog, Bitterroot Mountains, Montana. Arctic Alpine Res. 9:345-368.

Meyer, G. et al. 1992. Response of alluvial systems to fire and climate change in Yellowstone National Park. Nature 357: 147-150.

Meyer, G.A. Wells, S.G. and Jull, A.J.T. 1995. FIre and alluvial chronology in Yellowstone Natioinal Park: climatic and intrinsic controld of Holocene geomorphic processes. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 107: 1211-1230.



Millspaugh, S.H., Whitlock, C. and Bartlein, P.J. 2000. Variations in fire frequency and climate over the past 17,000 yr in central Yellowstone National Park. Geology 28: 211-214. Viewed online at http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/publications/MWB2000/millspaugh.pdf [ref].

Pierce, J.L., Meyer, G.A. and Jull, A.J.T. 2004. Fire-induced erosion and millennial-scale climate change in northern ponerosa pine forests. Nature 432: 87-90. Viewed online at http://www.nature.com/ [ref].

Renberg, I., and Wik, M. 1983. Soot particle counting in recent lake sediments: an indirect dating method. Ecol. Bulls. 36:

Renberg, I., and Wik, M. 1984. Dating recent lake sediments by soot particle counting. Verh. internat. Verein Limnol. 22:712-718.

Schweingruber, F. 1978. Microscopic Wood Anatomy, Swiss Federal Institute of Forestry Research

Schweingruber, F.H. 1990. Microscopic Wood Anatomy. 3. Aufl. Birmensdorf, Eidgenössische Forschungsanstalt für Wald, Schnee und Landschaft. 226 p.

Singh, G. & E.A. Geissler. 1985. Late Cainozoic history of vegetation, fire, lake levels and climate, at Lake George, New South Wales, Australia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 311: 379-477.

Smith, S.J. and Anderson, R.S. 1995. A method for impregnating soft sediment cores for thin-section microscopy. Journal Sedimentary Research A: Sed. Petrol. & Proc. A:65 576-577.

Stokes, M.A. and Dieterich, J.H. 1980. Proceedings of the fire history workshop U.S. Forest Service Gen. Techn. Report RM-81.

Swetnam, T.W. 1993. Fire history and climate change in giant sequoia groves. Science 262:885-889.

Swetnam, T.W. 1993. Fire history of rhyolite canyon, Chiricahua National Monument. Techn. Rep. 32

Swetnam, T.W. and Baisan, C.H. 1996. Historical fire regime patterns in the southwestern United States since AD 1700. US For. Serv. Tecn. Rp RM-GTR-286.

Swetnam T.W., and Betancourt, J.L. 1990. Fire-Southern Oscillation relations in the Southwestern United States. Science 249: 1017-1020.

Wang, X. Pengb, P.A. and Ding, Z.L. 2005. Black carbon records in Chinese Loess Plateau over the last two glacial cycles and implications for paleofires. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 223: 9–19.

Whitlock, C. and Millspaugh, S.H. 1996. Testing the assumptions of fire-history studies: an examination of modern charcoal accumulation in Yellowstone National Park, USA. The Holocene 6:7-17.

Williams, G.W. and Reed, W. 1994. References on the american indian use of fire in ecosystems. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. Directory Distributed by INTERNET. http://www.wildlandfire.com/docs/biblio_indianfire.htm [backup]


PHYTOLITHS READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

Carnellia, A.L. Theurillatb, J.P. and Madellac, M. 2004. Phytolith types and type-frequencies in subalpine-alpine plant species of the European Alps. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 129: 39-65. Viewed online at http://www.botany.unibe.ch/paleo/publications/reprints/RevPaleobotPalyno_129_39.pdf Accessed 7/04.

OTHER REFERENCES

Akersten W.A., Foppe, T. M., and Jefferson, G. T. 1988. New source of dietary data for extinct herbivores. Quaternary Research 30: 92-97.

Bear, G.D. and R.M. Hansen. 1966. Food habits, growht and reproduction of white-tailed jackrabbits in southern Colorado. Colo. St. Univ. Ag. Ex. Sta. Tech. Bul. 90, 59 p

Bremond, L., Alexandrea, A., Vélab, E. and Guiot, J. 2004. Advantages and disadvantages of phytolith analysis for the reconstruction of Mediterranean vegetation: an assessment based on modern phytolith, pollen and botanical data (Luberon, France). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 129: 213-228. Viewed online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/ Accessed 08/04. [ref]

Brown, D.W. 1984. Prospects and limits of a phytolith key for grasses in the central United States. J. Arch. Sci. 11:345-368.

Carbone, V.A. 1977. Phytoliths as paleoecological indicators. Pp. 194-205 IN: Newman, W. and Salwin, B. (Eds.) Amerinds and Their Paleoenvironments in Northeastern North American. Annals New York Acad Sci 288.

Carnellia, A.L., Theurillatb J-P. and Madellac, M. 2004. Phytolith types and type-frequencies in subalpine-alpine plant species of the European Alps. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 129: 39-65. Viewed online at http://www.botany.unibe.ch/ July, 2004.

Collins, S.M. 1979. Phytoliths as indicators of plant use and ancient Troy. M.S. thesis, Univ. Minnesota.

Davis, I. 1959. The use of epidermal characteristics for the identification of grasses in the leafy stage. Brig. Grassl. Soc. J. 14: 7-16.

Fearn, M.L. 1998. Phytoliths in sediment as indicators of grass pollen source. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 103: 75-81. Viewed online at http://www.southalabama.edu/geography/fearn/phyto.htm Accessed 8/04.

Hansen, R.M. 1971. Drawings of tissues of plants found in herbivore diets and in the litter of grasslands. U.S. IBP Techn. Rep. 70, 69 p.

Hansen, R.M. 1978. Shasta ground sloth food habits, Rampart Cave, Arizona. Paleobiology 4:302-319.

Liebowitz, H. and R.L. Folk. 1980. Archaeological geology of Tel Tin'am, Galilee, Israel. J. Field Arch. 7:23-42.

Long, A., R.M. Hansen, and P.S. Martin. Extinction of the Shasta ground sloth. GSA Bull. 85:1843-1848.

Parmente, G.C. and D.W. Folger. 1974. Eolian biogenic detritus in deep-sea sediment - possible index of equatorial ice age aridity. Science 184:695.

Pearsall, D.M. 1977. Phytolith analysis of archeological soils: evidence for maize cultivation in formative Ecuador. Science 199:177-178.

Piperno, D.R. 1985. Phytolith analysis and tropical paleo-ecology: production and taxonomic significance of siliceous forms in new world plant domesticates and wild species. Review Palaeo. P. 45:185-228.

Piperno, D.R. 1988. Phytolith analysis, an Archaeological and Geological Perspective. Academic Press, Inc. CC 77.5 P56 1988

Piperno, D.R. and Stothert, K.E. 2003. Science Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in southwest Ecuador 2003: 1054-1057.

Robbins, E.I., Martin, P.S., and Long, A. 1984. Paleoecology of Stanton's Cave, Grand Canyon, Arizona. pp. 116 - 130 in Euler, R.C. 1984. The archaeology, geology and paleobiology of Stanton's Cave, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. Grand Canyon Natural History Association 6.

Rovner, I. 1971. Potential of opal phytoliths for use in paleoecological reconstruction. Quat. Res. 1:343-359.

Thompson, R. S., Van-Devender, T. R. Martin, P. S., Fopppe, T., Long, A.. 1980. Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotheriops shastense Hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico; environment, diet, and extinction. Quaternary Research 14: 360-376.

Thorn, V.C., 2004. Data report: Phytoliths in drill core sediments from Sites 1165 and 1166, Leg 188, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica. In Cooper, A.K., O'Brien, P.E., and Richter, C. (Eds.), Proc. ODP, Sci. Results, 188. Viewed online at http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/188_SR/002/002.htm Accessed 8/04.

Twiss, P.C. 1983. Dust deposition and opal phytoliths in the Great Plains. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci 11:73-82.

Yeck, R.D. 1969. Selected characteristics of opaline phytoliths between some udols and ustols. Ph.D. Oklahoma State Univ.

Zucol A. F., Bertoldi de Pomar H., Osterrieth M. y M. Brea. 1999. Bibliografía sobre análisis fitolíticos FITOLÍTICAS (GEFACS) N° 1. 1 Viewed online at http://www.arcride.edu.ar/gefacs/fitoliticas1.pdf Accessed 7/04.


Radiocarbon Dating of Phytoliths:
References in email from Christine A. Prior (phy-talk@listserv.byu.edu)

Kelly, E. F., Amundson, R. G., Marino, B. D., et al. (1991) Stable isotope ratios in phytoliths as a quantitative method of measuring vegetation and climatic change. Quaternary Research 35(2):222-233

McClaran, M. P. and Umlauf, M. (2000) Desert grassland dynamics estimated from carbon isotopes in grass phytoliths and soil organic matter. Journal of Vegetation Science 11(1):71-76

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Piperno, D. R. and Becker, P. (1996) Vegetational History of a Site in the Central Amazon Basin Derived from Phytolith and Charcoal Records from Natural Soils. Quaternary Research 45(2):202-209

Piperno, D. R. and Stothert, K. E. (2003) Phytolith evidence for early Holocene Cucurbita domestication in Southwest Ecuador. Science 299(5609):1054-1057

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INVERTEBRATES READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

Elias, S.A. 2000. Climatic tolerances and zoogeography of the late Pleistocene beetle fauna of Beringia. Géographie physique et Quaternaire 54: 143-155. Viewed online at http://www.erudit.org/revue/gpq/ Accessed 7/04. [ref]

Schwert, D.P. and Ashworth, A.C. 1990 Ice age beetles. Natural History. (1990) 10-13.

OTHER REFERENCES

Cole, K.L. 1981. Late quaternary environments in the eastern Grand Canyon: vegetational gradients over the last 2500 years. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Ariz. 170 p.

Cole, K.L. 1985. Past rates of change, species richness, and a model of vegetational inertia in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Amer. Nat. 125:289-303.

Coope, G.R. 1977. Fossil coleopteran assemblages as sensitive indicators of climatic changes during the Devensian (Last) cold stage. Proc. Roy. Soc. B 280:313-337.

Elias, S.A. 1985. Paleoenvironmental interpretations of Holocene insect fossil assemblages from four high-altitude sites in the Front Range, Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic Alpine Res. 17:31-48.

Frey, D.G. 1964. Remains of animals in Quaternary lake and bog sediments and their interpretation. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beig. Ergebnisse der Limnologie 2:1-114.

Gould, S.J. 1993. A special fondness for beetles. Natural History 1/93:4.

Hughen, K.A., Eglinton, T.I., Xu, L., Makou, M. 2004. Abrupt tropical vegetation response to rapid climate changes. Science 304: 1955-1958.

Kurten, B. 1955. Sex dimorphism and size trends in the Cave Bear, Ursus spelaeus Rosenmuller and Heinroth. Acta Zool. Fennica 90:1-48. 1969. Cave Bears. Studies in Speleology 2:13-24.

Lamy, F., Kaiser, J., Ninnemann, U., Hebbeln, D., Arz, H.W., Stoner, J. 2004. Antarctic timing of surface water changes off Chile and Patagonian ice sheet response. Science 304: 1959-1962.

Markgraf, V., et al. 1984. San Agustin Plains, New Mexico: age and paleoenvironmental potential reassessed. Quat. Res. 22:336-343.

Matthews, J.V. 1975. Insects and plant macrofossils from tow Quaternary exposures in the Old Crow -- Porcupine region, Yukon Territory. Arctic Alpine Res. 7:249-259.

Mead, J.I. and Grady, F. 1996. Ochotona (Lagomorpha) from Late Qluaternary cave deposits in eastern North America. Quaternary Research 45: 92-101.

Megard, R.O. 1964. Biostratigraphic history of Dead Man Lake, Chuska Mountains, New Mexico. Ecology 45:529-546.)

Motz, J.E. and Morgan, A.V. 2001. Holocene paleoclimate and paleoecology determined from fossil Coleoptera at Brampton, Ontario, Canada. Canadian J. Earth Sci./Rev. 38(10): 1451-1462. Viewed online at http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/cgi-bin/rp/rp2_abst_e?cjes_e01-035_38_ns_nf_cjes Accessed 7/04.

Smith, F. A., Betancourt, J. L. and Brown, J. H. 1995. Evolution of body size in the woodrat over the past 25,000 years of climate change. Science 270: 2012-2014.

Wetzel, R.G. 1983. Limnology, (2nd Ed.) Chapter 23. Historical records of productivity: Paleolimnology. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Williams, J.W., Shuman, B., and Webb, T., III. 2002. Dissimilarity analyses of late Quaternary vegetation and climate in eastern North America. Ecology 82: 3346-3362.

Wolf, J.A. 1971. Tertiary climatic fluctuations and methods of analysis of Tertiary floras. Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol. 9:27-57.


SOILS READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

Birkland. P.W. 1974. Pedology, weathering and geomorphological research. Oxford Univ. Press. Chapter 12.

OTHER REFERENCES

Haynes, C.V.,Jr. 1967. Geochronology of Late-Quaternary alluvium. pp. 591-630 IN: Morrison, R.B. and Wright, H.E. (Eds.) Quaternary Soils. Proceedings Vol. 9, VII Congress INQUA.

Jenny, H. 1961. Derivation of state factor equations of soil and ecosystems Soil Sci. Soc Amer Proc 25:385-388.

Gile, L.H. and J.W. Hawley. 1966. Periodic sedimentation and soil formation on an alluvial-fan piedmont in southern New Mexico. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30:261-268.

Morrison, R.B. 1967. Principles of Quaternary soil stratigraphy. pp. 1-70 IN: Morrison, R.B. and Wright, H.E. (Eds.) Quaternary Soils. Proceedings Vol. 9, VII Congress INQUA.

Shroba, R.R. and P.W. Birkland. 1983. Trends in late-Quaternary soil development in the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada of the western United States. pp. 145-156 Vol.1 in H.E. Wright and S.C. Porter (eds.) Late Quaternary Environments of the United States. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.


HISTORICAL READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing climates of the Quaternary. 2nd edition. Academic Press. Chapter 11

OTHER REFERENCES

Bergthorsson, P. 1969. An estimate of drift ice and temperature in Iceland in 1000 years. Jökull. 19:94-101.

Campbell, I.D. and McAndrews, J.H. Forest disequilibrium caused by rapid Little Ice Age cooling. Nature 366:336-338.

Davis, O.K. and Turner, R.M. 1986. Palynological evidence for the historic expansion of juniper and desert shrubs in Arizona, U.S.A. Rev. Palaeobotany & Palynology 49:177-193.

van den Doole, H.M., Krijnen, H.J., Schuurmans, C.J.E., 1978. Average winter temperatures at De Bilt (The Netherlands), 1634-1977. Climate Change 1: 319-330.

Garcia, R, Macias, A, Gallego, D, Hernandez, E., Gimeno, L. and Ribera, P. 2003. Reconstruction of the precipitaiton for the Canary Islands for the perioe 1595-1836. American Meteorological Society August 2003: 1037-1039.
Hastings, R.J. and Turner, R.M. 1965. The Changing Mile. Univ. Arizona Press. 317 p.

Jones, P. D., Wigley, T.M.L., Wright, P.B. 1986. Global temperature variations between 1861 and 1984. Nature 322: 430-434.

LeRoy Ladurie, E. and Bauland, M. 1981. Grape harvest from the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries. pp. 259-269 In: Rothberg, R.I. and Rabb, T.K. (eds.) Climate and history: studies in interdisciplinary history. Princeton Univ. Press.

Mann, M.E., Bradley, R.S. and Hughes, M.K. 1998. Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries. Nature 392: 779-787.

Moy, C.M., Seltzer, G.O., Rodbell, D.T. and Anderson, D.M. 2002. Variability of El Nińo/Southern Oscillation activity at millennial timescales during th Holocene epoch. Nature 420: 162-165.

Munroe, J.S. 2003. Estimates of Little Ice Age Climate Inferred through Historical Rephotogrpahy, Northern Uinta Mountains, USA. Arctic, Antaractic and Alpine Research 35: 489-498.

Plaut, G., Ghil, M., and Vautard, R. 1995. Interannual and interdecadal variability in 335 years of central England temperatures. Science 268: 710-713.

Quinn, W.H. and Neal, V.T. 1992. The historical record of El Niño events. pp. 623-648 In: Climate since A.D. 1500. Routledge, London.

Sellers, W.D., Hill, R.H. and Sanderson-Rae, M. 1985. Arizona Climate the first hundred years. Univ. Arizona Press. 145 p.

West, G.J. 1989. Early historic vegetation change in Alta California: The fossil evidence. Pp. 333 - 348 IN: D.H. Thomas, Columbian Consequences, Vol. 1. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, D.C.


ARCHEOLOGY READINGS




ASSIGNED READINGS

Waters, M.R. 1992. Principles of Geoarchaeology, a North American perspective. Univ. Arizona Press. Chapter 1.

OTHER REFERENCES

Axtell, R.L., Epstein, J.M., Dean, J.S., Gumerman, G.J., Swedlund, A.C., Harburger, J., Cakravarty, S., Hammond, R., Parker, J., and Parker, M. 2002. Population growth and collapse in a multiagent model of the Kayenta Anasazi in Long House Valley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 99: 7275-7279. www.pnas.org/

Asch, D.L., and Asch, N.B. 1977. Chenopod as cultigen: a re-evaluation of some prehistoric collections from eastern North America. Mid-continental Journal of Archeaeology 2:3-45.

Baillie, M.L. 1989. DDo irish bog oaks date the Shang Dynasty? Current Archaeology 17:301-310.

Benedict, J.B. 1979. Getting away from it all: a study of man, mountains, and the two-drought Altithermal. Southwestern Lore (Colo. Arch. Soc) 45:1-12.

Betancourt, J.L., and Davis, O.K. 1984. Fossil packrat middens from Canyon de Chelly, northeastern Arizona, paleoecological and archeological implications. Quaternary Research 21: 556-564.

Betancourt, J.L., Long, A., Donahue, D.J., Jull, A.J.T., and Zabel, T.H. 1984. Pre-columbian age for North American Corispermum L. (Chenopoiaceae) confirmed by accelerator radiocarbon dating. Nature 311:653-655.

Betancourt, J.L. and T.R. Van Devender. 1981. Holocene vegetation in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. Science 214:656-658.

Bohrer, V.L. 1978. Plants that have become locally extinct in the southwest. New Mexico Jour. Sci. 18:10-19.

Butzer, K.W. 1980. Context in archaeology: an alternative perspective. J. Field Archeol. 7:417-422.

Byrne, R., and McAndrews, J.H. 1975. Pre-Columbian purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) in the new world. Nature 726-727.

Chapman, J., Stewart, R.B. and Yarnell, R.A. 1974. Archaeological evidence for precolumbian introduction of Portulaca oleraceae and Mollugo verticillata into eastern North America. Economic Botany 28:411-412.

Chumbley, C.A., Baker, R.G., and Bettis, E.A., III. 1990. Midwestern Holocene paleoenvironments revealed by floodplain deposits in northeastern Iowa. Science 249:272-274.

Crites, Gary D. 1991. Investigations into early plant domesticates and food production in middle Tennessee: A status report. Tennessee Anthropologist 16:69-87.

Davis, O.K. 1994. The correlation of summer precipitation in the southwestern U.S.A. with isotopic records of solar activity during the Medieval warm period. Climate Change 26: 271-287.

Dean, J.S. 1969. Chronological Analysis of Tsegi phase sites in northeastern Arizona. Papers Laboratory Tree-Ring Research 3.

Dean, J.S., Euler, R.C., et al. 1985. Human behavior, demography and paleoenvironment on the Colorado Plateaus. American Antiquity 50:537-554.

Dean, J.S., Gumerman, G.J., Epstein, J.M., Axtel, R.L., Swedlund, A.C., Parker, J., and McCarroll, S. 1999. Understanding Anasazi culture change through agent-based modeling. pp. 179-205 in T. Kohler and G. Gumerman (eds.) Dynamics in Human and Primate Societies. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

deMenocal, P.B. 2001. Cultural responses to climate change during the late Holocene. Science 292: 667-673

Dye, T.S. and Dickinson, W.R., 1996. Sources of sand tempers in prehistoric Tongan pottery. Geoarchaeology 11:141-164.

Finley FR, King SAM, Jackson J, Chew C, Teller JT, Prentice ME. 1991. The late Quaternary vegetational and climatic history of Easter Island. J. Quat. Sci. 6:85-115.

Fish, S.K. 1985. Prehistoric disturbance floras of the lower Sonoran Desert and their implications. AASP Contrib. Ser. 16:77-88.

Grimm, E.C. 1983. Chronology and dynamics of vegetation change in the prairie-woodland region of southern Minnesota U.S.A. New Phytologist 93:311-350.

Hevley, R.H. 1981. Pollen production, transport and preservation: potentials and limitations in archaeological palynology. J. Enthnobiol. 1:39-54.

Hebda, R.J. and R.W. Mathewes 1984. Holocene history of cedar and native indican cultures of the North American Pacific coast. Science 225:711-712.

Hodel, D.A., Brenner, M, Curtis, JH, Guilderson, T. 2001. Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya lowlands. Science 292: 1367-1370.

Hong et al., 1994. Ice core evidence for Roman Lead Pollution. Science 265:1841.

Hong et al. 1996 Copper smelting record in ice cores Roman and Industrial maxima Science vol 272:246

Huntington, Ellsworth 1917 Maya Civilization and Climatic Change. 19th Internat. Congr. Americanists.

Madsen, D.B. and Rhode, D. 1990. Early Holocene pinyon (Pinus monophylla) in the northeastern Great Basin. Quat. Res. 33:94-101.

McAndrews, J.H. 1988. Human disturbance of North American forests and grasslands: the fossil pollen record. p. 673-697 IN Huntley, B. and Webb, T. III (eds.) Vegetation History. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Masse, W.B. 1981. Prehistoric irrigation systems in the Salt River Valley, Arizona. Science 214:408-415.

Minnis, P.E. 1985. Domesticating people and plants in the greater Southwest. IN: R.I. Ford (ed.) pp. 309-1339. Prehistoric food production in North America. Museum of Anthropology, Anthro Paper no. 75, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Petersen, K.L. 1988. Climate and the Dolores River Anasazi. Univ. Utah Anthropol. Papers 113. 152 pp.

Piperno, D.R., Weiss, E., Hoist, I., and Nadel, D. 2004. Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Paleolithic revealed by starch grain analysis. Nature 430: 670-673. (19,500 14C yr B.P.)

Pope, K.O., Pohl M.E.D., Jones J.G., Lentz, D.L., von Nagy, C., Vega F.J., Quitmyer, I.R. 2001. Origin and environmental setting of ancient agriculture in the lowlands of Mesoamerica. Science 292 1370-1373.

Raab, L.M. 1994. The dead at Calleguas Creek: A study of punctuated cultural evolution during the middle-late period transition in southern California. Report to: Environmental division, Naval Air Weapons Station, Point Mugu, CA.

Raab, L.M. and Larson, D.O. 1997. Medieval climatic anomaly and punctuated cultural evolution in coastal Southern California. American Antiquity 62 (2): 319-336.

Rapp, G., Jr., & Gifford, J.A. 1982. Archaeological geology. American Scientist 70:45-43.

Stevens, Michelle. 2001. Archaic and early agricultural period land use in Cienega Valley, southeastern Arizona. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. Arizona.

Stine, S. 1994. Extreme and persistent drought in California and Patagonia during medieval time. Nature 369: 546-549.

Willis, W.H. 1988. Early prehistoric agriculture in the American Southwest. School of American Res., Santa Fe, NM.

Willis, W.H. 1990. Cultivating Ideas: The changing intellectual history of the introduction of Agriculture in the American Southwest. PP. 319-332 IN: Perspectives on southwestern Prehistory. Ed. by Paul Minnis and C.L. Redman. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.


PERIGLACIAL READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

R.S. Bradley. 1999. Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing climates of the Quaternary. 2nd edition. Academic Press. ChapterS 7 & 8.

OTHER REFERENCES

Boettger, H.T. and Kremenetski, C. 2001. Mediaeval climatic warming recorded by radiocarbon dated alpine tree-line shift on the Kola Peninsula, Russia. The Holocene 11: 491-497.

Dahl, S.O. and Nesje, A. 1996. A new approach to calculating Holocene winter precipitation by combining glacier equilibrium-line altitudes and pine-tree limits: a case study from Hardangerjokulen, central southern Norway. Holocene: 6: 381-398.

Denton, G.H. and W. Karlen. 1973. Holocene climatic variations -- their pattern and possible cause. Quat. Res. 3:155-205.

Dohrenwend, J. C. 1984. Nivation landforms in the western Great Basin and their paleoclimatic significance. Quaternary Research 22: 275-288.

Leonard, E.M. 1984. Late Pleistocene equilibrium-line altitudes and modern snow accumulation patterns, San Juan Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A. Arctic Alpine Res. 16:65-76.

Leonard, E.M. 1989. Climatic change in the Colorado Rocky Mountains: Estimates based on modern climate at Late Pleistocene equilibrium lines. Arctic Alpine Res. 21:245-255

Locke, W.W. 1989. Present climate and glaciation of western Montana, U.S.A. Arctic Alpine Res. 21:234-244.

Osborn, G. and Bevis, K. 2001. Glaciation in the Great Basin of the Western United States. Quaternary Science Reviews 20: 1377-1410.

Osborn, G. and Luckman, B.H. 1988. Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Canadian Cordillera (Alberta and British Columbia). Quaternary Science Reviews 7: 115-128.

Paterson, W.S.B. and Reeh, N. 2001. Thinning of the ice sheet in northwest greenland over the past fourty years. Nature 14: 60-62.

Porter, S.C. 1986. Pattern and forcing of northern hemisphere glacier variations during the last Millennium. Quat. Res. 26:27-48.

Pewe, T.L. 1983. The periglacial environment in North America during Wisconsin time. pp. 157-189 in S.C. Porter, ed. Late-Quaternary environments of the United States. Univ. Minnesota Press.

Rothlisberger, F, 1986. 10000 Jahre Gletschergeschichte de Erde. Verlag Sauerlander,Aarau.

Ruddiman, W.F. & L.K. Glover 1975. Subpolar North Atlantic circulation at 9300 yr B.P.: faunal evidence. Quat. Res. 5:361-389

Verschuren, D. Laird, K.R. Cumming, B.F. 2000. Rainfall and drought in equitorial Africa dring the last 1,100 years Nature 403: 410-414.

Wilson, A.T. 1964. Origin of ice ages: an ice shelf theory for Pleistocene glaciations. Nature 201:147

Zielinski, G.A. and W.D. McCoy. 1987. Paleoclimatic implications of the relationship between modern snowpack and late Pleistocene equilibrium-line altitudes in the mountains of the Great Basin, western U.S.A. Arctic Alpine Research 19:127-134.



BIOGEOGRAPHY READINGS




ASSIGNED READING

COHMAP Members 1988.Climate changes of the last 18,000 years: observations and model simulations Sci 241:1043-1052. [link]

OTHER REFERENCES

Bernabo, C. and T. Webb, III. 1977. Changing patterns in the Holocene pollen record of northeastern North America: A mapped summary. Quat. Res. 8:64-96.

Betancourt, J.L., Van Devender, T. R., Martin, P.S. 1990. Synthesis and prospectus. pp. 435-447 IN: Betancourt, J.L., Van Devender, T. R., Martin, P.S. Packrat middens the last 40,000 years of biotic change. Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson. 467 p.

Brown, J.H. 1971. Mammals on mountaintops: nonequilibrium insular biogeography. Am.Nat. 105:467-478.

Campbell, C. Blyth, C. B. and McAndrews, J. H. 1994. Bison extirpation may have caused aspen expansion in western Canada. Ecography 17: 360-362.

Carrara, P.E., Trimble, D.A., and Rubin, M. 1991. Holocene treeline fluctuations in the northern San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA, as indicated by radiocarbon-dated conifer wood. Arctic Alpine Res. 23:233-246.

Cole, K.L. 1982. Late Quaternary zonation of vegetation in the eastern Grand Canyon. Science 217:1142-1145.

Cole, K.L. 1985. Past rates of change, species richness, and a model of vegetational inertia in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Amer. Nat. 125:289-303.

Cruden, R.W. 1966. Birds as agents of long-distance dispersal for disjunct plant groups of the temperate western hemisphere. Evolution 20:517-532.

Cushing, E.J. 1967. Late-Wisconsin pollen stratigraphy and the glacial sequence in Minnesota. In: Cushing, E.J. and Wright, H.E. (Eds.) Quaternary Palaeoecology Yale Univ. Press, New Haven Conn.)

Davis, M.B. 1976. Pleistocene biogeography of temperate deciduous forests. Geoscience and Man 8:13-26.

Davis, M.B., Spear, R.W. and Shane, L.C.K. 1980. Holocene climate of New England. Quaternary Research 14:240-250.

Davis, O.K. 1984. Pollen frequencies reflect vegetation patterns in a Great Basin (USA) mountain range. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 40:295-315.

Deevey, E.S., Jr. 1949. Biogeography of the Pleistocene. G.S.A. Bull. 60:1315-1416.


Delcourt, P.A. and H.R. Delcourt. 1987. Long-term forest dynamics of the temperate zone. Ecological Studies 63 Springer-Verlag

Elias, S.A., 1985. Paleoenvironmental interpretations of Holocene insect fossil assemblages from four high-altitude sites in the Front Range, Wyoming, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research 17: 31-48.

Fernald, M.L. 1925. Persistence of plants in unglaciated areas of boreal America. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Science 15:237-342

Friedman, I., Carrara, P.E., and Gleason, J. 1988. Isotopic evidence of Holocene climatic change in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado. Quaternary Research 30:350-353.

Hebda, R.J. and R.W. Mathewes 1984. Holocene history of cedar and native indican cultures of the North American Pacific coast. Science 225:711-712.

Hope, G.S. 1980. Historical influences on the New Guinea flora pp. 223-248 IN: van Royen, P. (Ed.) Alpine flora of New Guinea Vaduz: Cramer Varlag

Hope, G.S., Golson, J. and Allen, F.J. 1983. Palaeoecology and prehistory in New Guinea. Journal of Human Evolution 12: 37-60.

Huntley, B. 1990. Dissimilarity mapping between fossil and contemporary pollen spectra in Europe for the past 13,000 years. Quaternary Research 33: 360-376.

Jacobsen, G.L., Jr., Webb, T., III, and Grimm, E.C., 1987, Patterns and rates of vegetation change during the deglaciation of eastern North America. In: Ruddiman, W.F. and Wright, H.E., Jr., eds., North America and adjacent oceans during the last deglaciation: Bolder, Colo, G.S.A. Geology N.Am. v. K-3.

Kam-biu, L. and Colinvaux, P.A. 1985. Forest changes in the Amazon basin during the last glacial maximum. Nature 318:555-557.

Kearney, M.S. and Luckman, B.H. 1983. Holocene timberline fluctuations in Jasper National Park, Alberta. Science 221: 261-263.

Kremenetski, C.V., Sulerzhitsky, L.D. and Hantemirov, R. 1998. Holocene history of the northern range limits of some trees and shrubs in Russia. Arctic Alpine Research 30: 317-333.

Long, A., Warneke, L.A., Betancourt, J.L., and Thompson, R.S. 1990. Deuterium variations in plant cellulose from fossil packrat middens. pp. 380-397 IN: Betancourt, J.L., Van Devender, T.R., and Martin, P.S. (Editors), Packrat Middens, The last 70,000 years of biotic change. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Major, J. and Bamberg, S.A. 1967. Some Cordilleran plants disjunct in the Sierra Nevada of California, and their bearing on Pleistocene ecological conditions. Arctic and Alpine Environ.

Maley, J. 1989. Late Quaternary climatic changes in the African rain forest: forest refugia and the major role of sea surface temperature variations. (p. 585-616) IN M.Leinen and M.Sarnthein (eds.) Paleoclimatology and paleometeorology: modern and past patterns of global atmospheric transport . Kluwer Academic Publ.

Martin, P.S. and Mehringer, P.J., Jr. 1965. Pleistocene pollen analysis and biogeography of the Southwest. in Wright and Frey, Quaternary of the United States, Princeton Univ. Press.

Ritchie, J.C., Cwynar, L.C., and Spear, R.W. 1983. Evidence from north-west Canada for an early Holocene Milankovitch thermal maximum. Nature 305: 126-128.

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