Webpage by:
Theresa Kayzar T.K.


  • Baxter, P.J., and Kapila, M., 1989, Acute health impact of the gas release at Lake Nyos, Cameroon, 1986: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 39, p. 265-275.
  • Degens, E.T., Von Herzen, R.P., Wong, H., Deuser, W.G., and Jannasch, H.W., 1973,  Lake Kivu: Structure, chemistry, and biology of an East African Rift Lake: Geologische Rundschau, v. 62, p. 245-277.
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2003, available at http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0198161.html.
  • Halbwachs, M., 2001, Degassing Nyos, available at http://perso.wanadoo.fr/mhalb/ nyos/2000/index2000.htm.
  • Holloway, M., 2000, The Killing Lakes: Scientific American, v. 283, p. 92-99.
  • IRIS special report, 2002, Nyiragongo Volcano, available at http://www.iris.washington.edu/news/events/congo/congo.htm.
  • Kamingini, B., Wilondja, K., Micha, J.C., and Vandenhaute, J., 1997, News from fisheries development on the Lake Kivu, Bukavu (Congo): Nouvelles des Projets, The European Union Online, available at http://europa.eu.int/comm/development/body/publications/fish/pe039724.pdf.
  • Kanari, S., 1989, An inference on the process of gas outburst from Lake Nyos, Cameroon: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 39, p. 135-149.
  • Kling, G.W., Tuttle, M.L., and Evans, W.C., 1989, The evolution of thermal structure and water chemistry in Lake Nyos: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 39, p. 151-165.
  • Lake Kivu, 2002, available at http://www.chemsoc.org/exemplarchem/entries/2002/whitehouse/Kivu.htm .
  • Lockwood, J. and Casadevall, T., 1994, Active volcanoes and associated hazards in the Goma area, eastern Zaire: Hawaii Center for Volcanology Newsletter, v. 2, no. 1.
  • Martinelli, B., 1991, Understanding triggering mechanisms of volcanoes for hazard evaluation: Episodes, v. 14, p. 19-25.
  • Reed, C., 2002, Goma: Mount Nyiragongo Lava Flows: Geotimes, Oct. 2002, When cities face geologic hazards, available at http://www.geotimes.org/oct02/feature_cities.html.
  • Rice, A., 2000, Rollover in volcanic crater lakes: a possible cause for Lake Nyos type disasters: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 97, p. 233-239.
  • Tazieff, H., 1994, Permanent lava lakes: observed facts and induced mechanisms: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, v. 63, p. 3-11.
  • USAID/Rwanda, 2002, Lake Kivu methane gas triggers high hopes, available at http://www.usaid.gov/regions/afr/success_stories/rwanda.html.
  • Witze, A., 2002, In Goma, lava flow brings second threat: Experts eye Lake Kivu for potential eruption of deadly gases, available at http://www.wfaa.com/cgi-bin/ Bi/gold_print.cgi.

Good Websites:



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