Annual resolution dates from corals
This image, from studies by Erica Hendy et al. (E.J. Hendy et al., 2003; E.J. Hendy, 2003a) compares the discharge from Burdekin River in northeastern Australia with the two coral cores taken north of the river mouth. The images are produced by long-wave UV luminescence photography of the cores. The bright lines in the corals are produced by humic acids from terrestrial plants, which are washed into the sea by rivers and deposited in the corals as they grow. In general, the greater the discharge, the larger and more distinct the bands. Floods are more frequent during La Niña years. This study, which includes many overlapping coral cores, traces the history of climate variation (ENSO) to the year 1615. [image]
Hendy, E.J. 2003a A coral diary of Australian droughts before European settlement Online Opinion electronic publication. Posted 21/2/03, Viewed March, 2003.

Hendy, E.J. 2003b Environmental Geochemistry & Geochronology. Homepage, Australia National University Viewed March, 2003.

Hendy, E.J., Gagan, M.K., Alibert, C.A., McCulloch, M.T., Lough, J.M. & Isdale, P.J. (2002) Abrupt decrease in tropical Pacific sea surface salinity at end of Little Ice Age. Science 295: 1511-1514.

Hendy, E.J., Gagan, M.K. and Lough, J.M. 2003. Chronological control of coral records using luminescent lines and evidence for non-stationary ENSO teleconnections in northeast Australia. The Holocene 13: 187-199.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Paleoclimatology Program/Department of Commerce
Two sections of a core of Pavona clavus from Urvina Bay, Galapagos (0, 91W)
Rob Dunbar, Department of Geology and Geophysics, Rice University
This image is a plain light photograph the curved lines in the upper photograph were produced by a saw. Notice that the bands are not visible in plain light. The hand-drawn lines below were drawn under UV illumination.
Dunbar, R. and G.M. Wellington. 1981. Stable isotopes in a branching coral monitor seasonal temperature variation. Nature 293:453-455.

Dunbar, R.B. and Wellington, G.M. 1999. Eastern Pacific Sea Surface Temperature since 1600 A.D: The (180 Record of Climate Variability in the Galapagos). Viewed online March 2003 at

Glynn, P.W. and G.M. Wellington. 1983. Corals and coral reefs of the Galápagos Islands. University of California Press. 331 pages.

Wellington, G.M. 1997. Field guide to the corals and coral reef of the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. Proceed. 8th International Coral Reef Symposium. Vol 1:185-202.

Wellington, G.M., R.B. Dunbar, G. Merlen. 1996. Calibration of stable oxygen isotope signatures in Galápagos corals. Paleoceanography 11:467-480.