Risks, Hazards and Toxicity




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    Risk (probable cause of death)

      Heart Disease 25% 29.0 (2001)
      Cancer 22.5% 22.9              SMOKING
      Stroke 5.0% 6.8                 RELATED
      Emphysema 5.7% 5.1     $157 billion/yr 2009
      Accidents 5.0% 4.2          $96 billion/yr 2012
      Diabetes 2.9% 3.0           vs. Global x
      Influenza 2.6%
      Alzheimer's 3.3% 2.2%           vs.20-24 yr old
      Kidney disease 1.6%
      Bacterial infections 1.3%
      Other (uncategorized) 21.3% (CDC Data for USA, 2001)

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Toxicity: (how harmful a substance is)
(mostly chemical hazards) (cocaine heroin)

      1. size of the dose
      2. length (time) of exposure
      3. age of victim
      4. health of victim
      5. genetic predisposition of victim


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    Poison: lethal in small quantities

        Dosage
          100 cups of coffee in 2 hours lethal
          1 liter 200 proof alcohol 2 hrs lethal UA
        Poison: 50 mg / kg body weight lethal to 50% of victims 150 lbs = 68 kg (3.4g dose)
        LD50 death to 1/2 of the victims
          (60-200 lab animals, in 14 days)


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      Hazardous Chemicals: can be lethal

        Mutagens: change genetic code (DNA) - organic solvents CCl4
        Teratogens: cause birth defects - thalidomide, arsenic
        Carcinogens: cancer causing - tobacco

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      Reducing risk

      • don't smoke
      • avoid excess sunlight
      • drink in moderation
      • reduce cholesterol
      • eat fruits and vegetables
      • exercise regularly
      • maintain healthy weight
      • drive safely

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