Holocene, Historical and Human Biogeography

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Early Holocene

Younger
Dryas

8200 yr event









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Holocene change



Neoglacial 0-3500 yr

Mid-Holocene 3500-7500 yr

Early Holocene 7500-10000 yr




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Late Holocene













[MX 1545]

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Glacial events














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Holocene Migration of plants














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    Origins of Agriculture

















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    Origins of Agriculture



    Corn (Zea mays)











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    Centers of Agriculture

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Primate Paleontology







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Hominid Paleontology







Family Hominidae Tribe Hominina

Table of Characters
Skulls
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Evolutionary Trends

  • Bipedalism vs. arboreal
  • Size: early Australopithecenes chimp-sized
  • Cranial Capacity: three-fold increase
      Neotony[.]
    • Birth Canal: infant cranium too large
    • Parental Care: born helpless
  • Dietary Specialization: tooth size & shape, enamel
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Evolutionary Trends

Cranial Capacity: three-fold increase
• = apes
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Evolutionary Trends

Cranial Capacity increase in H. erectus
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Hominid Adaptations to dispersal next






Migration Out of Africa

Homo erectus 1.8 - 0.3 Ma
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Migration Out of Africa


Homo sapiens archaic 400 - 130 Ka [skull] [.]
Homo neanderthalinsis? 300 - 30 Ka next






Migration to Europe

Homo sapiens sapiens 200 - 0 Ka
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Migration to Australia and New World

Homo sapiens sapiens 150 - 0 Ka
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Migration to Oceanic Islands

Homo sapiens sapiens 150 - 0 Ka
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Conservation Biogeography

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Conservation Biogeography

P.S. Martin's Overkill Hypothesis next






Conservation Biogeography

Human Effects
Decline of Tonga Island bird species
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Conservation Biogeography

Range Collapse of the California Condor
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Conservation Biogeography

Human Effects
Range Collapse of American Chestnut
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Conservation Biogeography

Human Effects
Range Collapse of Balck-footed Ferret and Red Wolf






Local Human Extinctions

Pacific Ocean Islands occupied before 1500
Anasazi Culture, USA Southwest
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Local Human Extinctions

Inca Empire






Conservation Biogeography

and

Global Climate Change


(1) Climate Space (niche) for 16 species
USGS Global Change next