Marine Biogeography

ECOL 438 next














bathymitry

http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/ next






Ocean Surface Topography

http://topex-www.jpl.nasa.gov/aviso/graphics/general/discover/planet/planet-test.htm next






Average Wind Speed

http://www.cdc.noaa.gov/map/clim/glbcir.shtml climate next






Semipermanent features of atmospheric circulation

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Semipermanent features guide storms

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Wave Height

http://facs.scripps.edu/surf/global.html animation next






Sea Surface Temperature

http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/sst.html El Niņo next






Biotic Regions

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Right Whale

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Pilot Whale

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Coral Diversity

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Coral Reef Fish Diversity

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Mangrove Diversity


http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/fish/southflorida/mangrove/distribution.html next






Salinity - September

http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/ next






Density - Temperature & Salinity

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Water Mass Mixing

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Upwelling and Downwelling

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Upwelling

Offshore Winds

Winds from North
(northern hemisphere)

Winds from South
(southern hemisphere)




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Nitrate

http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/dees/ees/climate/slides/ant_no3.gif next






Water Masses of Deep Circulation

NADW
North Atlantic Deep Water
  salty cold
AAIW
Antarctic Intermediate Water
  oxygenated
AABW
Antarctic Bottom Water
  salty very cold [+]



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Thermohaline Circulation NADW

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Productivity (Chlolophyll)

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Biotic Zones

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Lacustrine Habitats

Bog Succession





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Ocean Basin Geography

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Stratification

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Diversity Patterns:

typically diversity increases with productivity
polluted freshwater habitats are exceptions

Sanders, H.L. 1968. Marine benthic diversity: A comparative study. American Naturalist 102: 243-282.

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Benthic & Freshwater: typically diversity is greatest in tropics

Intertidal: diversity decreases toward the high-tide line





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Marine Life Zones

Marginal

Pelagic = Open Sea

Intertidal Zone
(rock)
Euphotic Zone 0 - 200 m
Shelf
Slope
(rock)
Bathyl Zone 200 - 4500 m
Abyssal
(rock)
Abyssal Zone 4500 - 11,000 m
Hadal Zone > 6000m
(rock)
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Marine Diversity Patterns

Pelagic Environments:
    typically diversity decreases with depth
    diversity & productivity (upwelling)
Benthic Organisms may be exceptions (stability of continental slopes)

next Day, D.S. and Pearcy, W.G. 1968. Species associations of benthic fishes on the continental shelf and slope off Oregon. Journal Fisheries Res. Board Canada 25: 2665-2675.
Rex, M.A. 1981. Community structure in the deep-sea benthos. Annual Rev. Ecology Systematics 12: 331-354.




Ocean Tides

Rocky Point Range 6 m.
http://www.rptimes.com/tide_chart.html
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Tide Patterns

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Global Tide Pattern

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Coastal Ecosystems

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River Deltas

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Salton Sea







Sea of Cortez

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Exotic Species

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