BASIC CLIMATOLOGY

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① Earth is a sphere, ② Spinning in space


Cosine Law More energy received at equator than at poles

Coriolis Effect Pattern of Energy Distribution

(Northern Hemisphere) next










③ The Earth has an Atmosphere

  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Lapse rate
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Atmospheric Circulation
See ① "Earth is a sphere"

Hadley Cells Vertical Circulation Forced by Surplus Equatorial Heat

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See ② "spinning in space"

Air traveling equatorward in Hadly Cell is deflected by Coriolis Effect.
Air in hemispheres converges at equator to produce ITCZ.
Westerlies similarly produced.
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Semipermanent features
     of atmospheric circulation
     - the effect of the continents

Subpolar Lows
Westerlies
Subtropical Highs
ITCZ

Aleutian Low
   Greenland Low
Bermuda High
   East Pacific High



© W.H.Freeman & Co. 2000. Ruddiman. Earth's Climate Past and Future. next










Ocean Circulation

Driven by Semipermanent Features of Atmospheric Circulation


© W.H.Freeman & Co. 2000. Ruddiman. Earth's Climate Past and Future.
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Vegetation Patterns:
① Earth is a sphere &
② Spinning in space

Produce the major vegetation patterns of Earth.
  • Global radiation
  • Wind patterns, ascending - descending air masses. next










  • The Seasons - See ① & ② above

    Tilt of Axis
      Arctic / Antarctic Circles
      Tropic of Cancer / Capricorn
      Solar Equator
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    Monsoons - not primarily from ① ② ③


    © W.H.Freeman & Co. 2000. Ruddiman. Earth's Climate Past and Future. next










    ENSO: El Niño - Southern Oscillation

    La Niña Phase:



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    ENSO: El Niño - Southern Oscillation

    El Niño Phase:



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    Climate Patterns

    El Niño - Global Effects on Climate
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    Regional Climate Patterns - ③ above

    • Mountain: Lapse Rates


    • Rain Shadow
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    Arizona Life Zones - Lapse Rates


      Lowe, 1964. Arizona's Natural Environment. Tables 3, 4, 5.
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    Soils

    • Soil Processes: CORPT
      • Climate
      • Organisms
      • Relief
      • Parent Material
      • Time
    • Soil Orders
      • Inceptisol: young soil without horizons
      • Alfasol : forest soil
      • Aridisol: desert soil poorly-developed horizons
      • Mollisol: grassland soil with deep dark A horizon
      • Spodosol : conifer forest soil with E horizon
      • Ultisol : highly weathered subtropical soil



    Soils


    • Soil Horizons
      • O - Organic
      • A - Mineral, Organic, Material, Illuviation
      • E - Leached Horizon
      • B - Mineral, Eluviation
      • C - Scarcely Weathered
      • K - Carbonate Deposite

    • Unusual Soils
      • Shallow: difficult for root growth, low water, low nutrients
      • Saline: osmotic pressure
      • Bajadas: aluvial - coluvial cones along desert mountain fronts



    Aquatic Environments

      Stratification (picnocline)
      • Thermal (thermocline)
      • Chemical (chemocline)
      • Epilimnion: upper layer
      • Hypolimnion: lower layer
      • Overturn: stratification breakdown in fall and spring

      • Light: near surface
      • Temperature: decreases with depth during summer
      • Nutrients: used up in surface



    Aquatic Habitats

    • Littoral
    • Profundal
    • Benthic



    Aquatic Organisms

    • Plankton: floating
      • Phytoplankton: photosynthetic
      • Zooplankton: heterotrophic
    • Nekton: swimming
    • Benthic: on the bottom



    Oceans

    • Upwelling
    • Tides
        intertidal
        subtidal

      neap tide

      spring tide



    Habitats

    • Microhabitats
        burrows, nests, caves, ponds
    • Gradients