CHAPTER 1

BIOGEOGRAPHY:
Patterns of distributions of organisms

  • in space
  • in time

Processes that determin the patterns

  • biological
  • physical

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Why do orginisms live where they do?
Hugget

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Scale (space & time):

  • taxonomic rank [example]
  • community - biome
  • historic, postglacial, Phanerozoic

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Scale
Time: changing of the patterns of distributions

  • Geological time scale
  • Ecological time scale

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Biogeography: synthetic, eclectic

  • Phytogeography: plants
  • Zoogeography: animals
  • Historical Biogeography: orginations, extinctions, evolution
  • Ecological Biogeography (current): tolerances, optima, competition, predation
  • Paleoecology: history of ecological interactions and climate

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Biology, Botany, Genetics, Biology, Ecology, Evolution, Systematics, Meteorology, Geography, Geology, Oceanography,Mathematics

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Principles
Time
Uniformitarianism (actualism): in general, physical laws have operated in the past

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Principles
Inductive reasoning: from particular observations to general principals

  • discovering the rules

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Principles
Deductive reasoning: from general laws to specific predictions

  • making predictions based on the rules

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